Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Politics in Australian Media

Politics in Australian Media Essay Prompt: Politics is badly reported to the public because the Australian print media is highly concentrated and lacks adequate accountability. Critically assess this statement with examples to support your argument. In the Australian print media, a significant issue is continuing to hold a common place in relevant debate. This is in regards to company ownership becoming excessively concentrated with minimal accountability; that is, colossal media corporations such as Fairfax Media are continuing to grow and take over the smaller companies within the industry. Consequences of this (amongst other things) will be discussed in this essay biased political information with minimal diversity being provided to the public, and damage to the Australian democracy due to the deteriorating ‘watchdog’ function of the media. Additionally, the poor accountability of the Australian print media will be explored including its ramifications and possible solution. In this essay these key areas will be discussed through referencing relevant theories and examples. The current state of the Australian print media being extremely concentrated is leading to published political information being full of biases. This can be depicted through examining the Chomsky and Herman propaganda model (Chomsky Herman 2002). One of this theory’s primary focuses is on the size, ownership, and profit orientation of large media corporations and the role they play in manipulating information portrayed to the public. Such corporations in Australia (e.g. News Corporation) have grown over time to such sizes that they have taken over most smaller companies. With such domination, it is only expected that information presented by these giants will be fundamentally biased (e.g. certain information that may damage the company’s financial interests would be likely to receive high censorship) (Tiffen 2006). For instance, during the 2013 Australian election, a significant majority of Australia’s newspapers supported the liberal party. As would be expected , their publications were heavily biased and were likely to have had a significant impact upon the election results. The Chomsky and Herman model has received a large amount of criticism; Eli Lehrer (2004 p. 67-87) argued against the supposed corporate bias of the media, asserting that media organisations report on corporate and political corruption all the time. However, Lehrer overlooked Chomsky and Herman’s (2002 p. lx) point which stated that the media in fact represents corporate and political deliberations, however it is the views that challenge the ‘fundamental premises’ of these deliberations that are intentionally ignored (Chomsky Herman 2002). The role of the media in keeping the government in check by not only informing but also involving the public in the Australian political sphere is also being compromised. Democratic societies (like that which exists in Australia) depend upon the public being reasonably informed about the current political sphere. As the concentration of media ownership in Australia continues to become more intense, this role of the media is fading and the threads of our democracy are tearing. It is important to understand that politics cannot exist without the media in the modern era; it creates a reality for us in which we are told what to think. This can be best explored through the liberal idea known as the ‘Fourth Estate’ (Schultz 1998). This traditional role of the media as the ‘Fourth Estate’ was to provide society with a diverse and un-biased array of information on the current political sphere. Worryingly, Habermas found in his studies that by the 20th century newspapers had become so controlled by commercial interest that they no longer served the public sphere (Habermas 1989). For example, the media will often inform us with popular news (e.g. celebrity-related) that will attract more views, however this information is likely to not be in the public interest (Tiffen 2006). Democracy depends upon the State accepting criticism of its power; if the public are not provided with information regarding current political issues, political participation will be limited (or tainted) and thus the whole notion of a democratic society becomes almost redundant (Schultz 1998). The ‘power, commercial ambitions and ethical weakness’ (Schultz 1998 p. 1) of these large media corporations gives an accurate depiction of the media’s failure in the modern age to perform its role as the Fourth Estate. As a result, the negative effects of the highly concentrated Australian print media are evident. In addition, the corporate giants that dominate the media industry lack adequate accountability. Media giants such as Fairfax Media and News Corporation are not being held liable for many of their actions that would have (in the past) attracted prosecution. As their size has grown, so has their influence and power to avoid such accountability. Journalists wield the power to portray people/ideas/events etc; the way these are portrayed creates the reality within which we all live (Schultz 1998). In other words, we rely primarily on the media for the info and imagery out of which we construct our reality of current political circumstances. Large powers such as this are often unacknowledged by the practitioners of the media due to its implication of the necessity for accountability; they want maximum power and minimal regulation (Noam 2009). However, protections (e.g. the implied right to the freedom of political communication) conferred on the media in Australia create a dilemma when it comes to holding it to account. It is inconsistent with the general principle of freedom of the press to have laws that, for example, allow Parliament to censor media content prior to publication (prior censorship) (Noam 2009). Nonetheless, it is equally as inconsistent with this general principle to have laws that would allow parliament to punish the media after publication for general infringements of a government-invented standard. The Finkelstein enquiry (Steward 2012) proposed a solution that could have great potential in alleviating this regulatory issue. Currently, Australian print media (i.e. newspapers) is regulated by the Australian Press Council. However, this body is self-regulated and has no actual legal power. The Finkelstein review recommended an independent statutory authority funded by the Commonwealth – this would cover all media and would have the power to enforce its decisions through the courts (Steward 2012). Such a proposition may very well be the answer to ensuring the media is held accountable for its actions. This essay discussed a variety of areas stemming from the issue of the high concentration of the Australian print media and its minimal accountability. As a result of this, political matters of importance are being very badly reported (if at all) to the public. The large corporations that now dominate the industry are heavily biased in their political views and tend to pursue profit-related endeavours over ensuring legitimate, high quality political news is provided to the public. Furthermore, the media is failing in its role as the Fourth Estate (that is, keeping the government in check through being a ‘watchdog’ for the public). And lastly, reform (such as a new independent statutory authority) is needed in order to address the growing issue of the Australian print media’s minimal accountability. Bibliography: Habermas, J 1989, ‘The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a category of Bourgeois Society’, Polity, Cambridge. Herman, E; Chomsky, N 2002,‘Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media’, Pantheon Books. p.Ix. Lehrer, E 2004, ‘Chomsky and the Media: A Kept Press and a Manipulated People’, The Anti-Chomsky Reader, Encounter Books, pp. 67-87. Noam, E. M 2009,‘Media Ownership and Concentration in America’, New York: Oxford University Press. Schultz, J 1998, ‘Reviving the Fourth Estate: Democracy, Accountability and the Media’, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. Steward, C 2012 Finkelstein report: Medias great divide,The Australian. Tiffen, R 2006, ‘Political economy and news’, The Media and Communications in Australia, Crow’s Nest, N.S.W: Allen Unwin, pp. 28-42.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

The Bond of Marriage Essay -- Gay Marriages Homosexuals Equality Essay

The Bond of Marriage The argument to allow gay couples to marry has been a debatable topic for many years. The authors, Andrew Sullivan and William Bennett have conflicting beliefs to whether gay marriages should be permissible. Sullivan expresses his opinion of the right gays have to marry in his article â€Å"Let Gays Marry.† Bennett retaliates with his own article opposing gay marriage. His article â€Å"Leave Marriage Alone,† relates his view that same-sex marriage is wrong and unethical. Both authors provide valid information to their opinions. Andrew Sullivan conveys his idea on gay marriage in his article â€Å"Let Gays Marry† published in Newsweek on June 3, 1996, pg 26. Sullivan’s article addresses those who are opposed to homosexual marriage or unsure of their beliefs. He tries to persuade his audience to favor gay marriages. Sullivan believes gay men and lesbians should have the right to marry because they are citizens of the United States. Every citizen is granted the right of equality regardless of their circumstance or sexual preference. Sullivan quotes the Supreme Court and its recent decree when this article was composed and written. â€Å"A state cannot deem a class of persons a stranger to its laws,† (Sullivan, pg 25). The Supreme Court finally recognized the gay community as normal human beings that should not be ostracized by society. They should not have to feel like second-class citizens in their own free country. These reasons lead Sullivan to believe in homosexual marriag e. Every person should be allowed to marry if they are fortunate enough to find their true love. Marriage is a commitment between two people who wish to bind their love in sacred vow. Marriage, explains Sullivan, is â€Å"the ... ...of the human species. Sullivan argues marriage is not only limited to child-rearing. Pat and Shelly Buchanan and Bob and Elizabeth Dole are examples of prominent heterosexual couples who never had children. Sullivan and Bennett’s articles both explain the different opinions of many Americans in the United States. Sullivan shows how the gay community has struggled for their right to allow same-sex marriage. He gives his opinions and examples of why gay marriage should be permitted America. Bennett opposes this type of marriage with his argument of where the special rights for immoral sexual activities would end. He uses his own opinions influenced by religious faith. Sullivan states credible facts regarding human nature and America’s governmental establishment. Both authors present good arguments for their opinions and express their ideas constructively.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

The Nature of Love in Sonnets

Write an essay on the nature of love as it is represented in two sonnets from the reader. Why do you think the sonnet form lends itself to talking about love? During the 13th century, literature was mainly focused on love. It is evident in Spenser’s and Shakespeare’s sonnets because they believed in true love. Sonnets were created as a way to express feelings about life issues including love put into words. This essay talks about how the sonnet form lends itself talking about love.It goes on a brief explanation of what a sonnet is; from where it originated from, and yet a detailed understanding of sonnet forms. I also talk about two sonnets extracted from the reader – (sonnet 2 William Shakespeare, 1609) and (– Amoretti 78 Edmund Spenser, 1595) this essay also explains why they loved writing sonnets and to whom it was dedicated to. The sonnet comes from the Italian word, â€Å"sonnetto† which means â€Å"little song†. Originally in the thirte enth century, sonnets were first sung in Italian courtyards expressing romantic love.Around the 1200’s, they were written by Dante and Tasso in Italy, followed by Du Bellay and Ronsard in France before it was introduced and translated in English by Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century. Basically, the traditional subject of the sonnet has primarily been love because they were written to express feelings of love. Famous writers such as Shakespeare, Petrarch and Edmund wrote their greatest sonnets about love. Why? Because they wanted to impress their mistresses with their great poetic skills.Back in that time, sonnets were used as a statement of their deepest feelings and love was a big part of them. The sonnet is a lyrical poem; it consists of fourteen lines. It has a regular pattern of rhyme called a rhyme scheme and has a specific structure called the iambic pentameter, a term for poem patterns in which each line has 10 syllables beginning with an unstressed syllable and a stressed syllable followed by another pair of unstressed and stressed syllables until there are five pairs of syllables. There are three major types of sonnets I will be talking about and they are as different from each other.The first type is called the Petrarchan sonnet also known as the Italian sonnet was created by a Sicilian poet Giacomo da Lentini but was named after Francesco Petrarch because he mastered sonnets perfectly in the 14th century better than Giacomo himself. He fell in love with a young woman he saw at the church. Laura, whose name he was to immortalize in his sonnets, inspired him to write â€Å"the Canzoniere† a collection of love poems consisting of 365 sonnets about her, his true love. Petrarch wrote his sonnets about love.It was the first sonnet form to be written in the English language. The pattern of this sonnet is normally divided into two parts: the octave and the sestet. The octave is the first eight lines that have two quatrain and where the the me or problem is described which have the rhyming scheme of ABAB ABAB; on the other hand, the sestet is what solves the problem normally is the last six lines and it has three possibilities such as CDECDE or CDCCDC or CDCDCD. It usually has a pause between the octave and the sestet called the turn or â€Å"Volta† often being the 9th line.The second type of sonnet, the Shakespearean also known as the English sonnet was developed by the Earl of Surrey in the 16th century. It was named after William Shakespeare because he was the first to write in this form composing great sonnets. He wrote 154 sonnets and most of them were related about love. The Shakespearean sonnet is known to be very easy and simple to write; it is made up of three quatrains and a couplet at the end written in the iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme ABAB CDCD EFEF GG, no wonder it is easy to remember and also follows the alphabetic order.What makes it different from other sonnet forms, is that it is writ ten and printed without a pause in-between the lines. In this type of sonnet, the rhyming lines in each stanza are the first and third and the second and fourth. In the couplet ending, both lines rhyme and follow the same rhyming pattern in all of his sonnets. Shakespeare’s love sonnets are indeed very personal addressing a lot of issues in life. It was believed that he wrote some of his sonnets for a young man which he describes beautiful; some thought if he was homosexual. Well that is something we might never know.Love for Shakespeare was beautiful; he was passionate about love and the sonnet form was a way for him to express his feelings. Through them, he was able to pass personal messages about life issues including, love. How hard it is to mention to whom his sonnets were dedicated to; some say his first 126 were for his love of a young man that questioned many of his sexuality. Of course there was a possibility that he cheated on his wife, Anne Hathaway and wrote some of his sonnets about the women he had his affairs with. Let’s have a look in his sonnet 20 from the reader (William Shakespeare 1564-1616 from sonnets): it s known to be one of the best of his 154 sonnets. It has caused a lot of confusion mainly because it shows a deep love for another man describing him with womanly features – a beautiful looking man. This man, who he could have created has earned Shakespeare’s love, though he points out in the last lines â€Å"Mine be thy love and thy love’s use their treasure† that it is a spiritual and not a physical love. â€Å"Hast thou, the master mistress of my passion†, can such a man-woman exist? This master-mistress is meant for women by the nature's â€Å"application† of the male genital organs.When he says â€Å"An eye more bright than theirs, less false in rolling† clearly shows that he thinks men are more honest and intelligent than women. It also suggests that a person's ability is tied in with their appearance, and can even suggest that a person having both manly and womanly features is the most beautiful to him . According to my readings this sonnet is proof of Shakespeare's homosexuality; others believe he just wanted to explain the universal nature of love. Now on with the third and last sonnet form, the Spenserian sonnet, named after Edmund Spenser one of the greatest poet in the English literature.Well, it is similar to the Shakespearean sonnet form with three quatrains and a couplet, written in iambic pentameter with a rhyme scheme of ABAB BCBC CDCD EE. Some think that this type of form is quite difficult to understand especially new students as it is a mixed of the Petrarchan and the Shakespearean form that creates a stronger link between quatrains, and in a way of a more song-like tone. This fits since the word sonnet means â€Å"Little Song† in Italian. Spenser is well-known for â€Å"Amoretti†, a collection of love sonnets he wrote for his second wife, Elizabeth Boyle after their marriage.In his sonnets, Spenser talks about the love he has for his wife and what she means to him. One good example is the sonnet 78 from the Amoretti sonnets: Lackyng my love I go from place to place, Lyke a young fawne that late hath lost the hynd: and seeke each where, where last I sawe her face, †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦beholds her selfe in me ( Amoretti 78, Edmund Spenser, 1595) In Sonnet 78 (amoretti 78 Edmund Spenser), he feels a separation from his fiancee deeply, wandering â€Å"from place to place, lyke a young fawne that late hath lost the hynd† (lines 1-2).He suffers over her departure and spends his time going to the places they spent time together: â€Å"And seeke each where, where last I sawe her face† looks at how much she reminds him of her presence, and instead to turn his eyes inward, that he might â€Å"Behold her selfe in mee† (line 14). Spenser's sonnets detail the admiration and the agonizing aspects of love. He uses very complex words in this sonnet maybe intending to show his writing skills or just the language he used in his sonnets. What would our lives be without love? Which would be their meaning?Without friendship, love experiences, would it be worthwhile to live? The language of love can be expressed in so many ways, through talking, through words maybe that’s why sonnets were created for; sonneteers wanted to impress their great writing skills and love was the best topic in the sonnet. Nowadays the sonnet is rather sung through songs, most songs you listen to is about love, people may not notice it but my opinion is sonnets are a beautiful way to communicate to the reader and will live forever. As you can see, sonnets have played a vital part of the early renaissance in literature.They have been used to talk about specific topic such as religion, politics but were mainly focused on love because it was firstly written about love. Sonnets are considered to be love poems even though afterwards some other writers wrote about their choice of topic. Shakespeare and Spenser were passionate about love and even received love; writing sonnets was a way for them to express their unattained feelings and to immortalize their great work through the sonnet which will live on onto many generations. They thought of love being something beautiful and magical. 1610 words