Wednesday, November 27, 2019
buy custom Transactional Model of Communication essay Communication is an act of passing information from one person to another. It is important, therefore, that one ensures that the receiver is in a position to get the message (Balmud 2008, pp. 47-52). The feedback one gets from the receiver makes it easy to know whether effective communication has occurred. We communicate during all our life, sometimes even without knowing it. Several obstacles may arise in the process of communication. These include anxiety, lack of preparation, and sexual harassment among others. Life is full of such situations. Many people will experience such scenarios at least once in a while (Schramm 1954, pp. 5-15). Most of human beings feel that it is easy to communicate; people feel that they are always able to make good communication to the people around. Unfortunately, it is not that easy. Communication needs a lot of preparation (Schramm 1954, pp. 5-15). People should be ready to communicate even in very difficult moments. Still, they must never assume tha t they have been able to communicate what they wanted to. As such, persons should be ready to evaluate the feedback from the recipients. A good feedback should be what they must use to determine how good they are in communication. Description of the situation In my experience, I have been in places, where I have wanted to convey a certain message but was unable to. Sometimes, I have been disappointed, when several people want to convey certain messages, very crucial, but are interrupted in the course of doing so. About a month ago, I went to a certain restaurant within the city. I wanted to do deliveries for vegetables, and also get the payment for earlier deliveries. I found out that the management had changed and new people had been put in place. Though, I had done this many months before, I was suddenly uneasy. The manager in charge of supplies was new to me. This meant that I had to give the details of who I was, why I wanted to see him. The meeting took a short time. Anxiety grew within me and I could not convey the necessary information with ease. After the session was over, the supply manager was suspicious of who I really was. He had many questions that he wanted me to answer in another session. Analysis of the situation Having been in the business for long, I had never figured out that management would change. I never prepared for changes, assuming that communication would always be easy. That specific day proved that I have never made good preparations as far as communication is concerned. Communication, as I had assumed, could have never been hindered. However, this was a wrong assumption. I needed to make ajustments even before I headed for the restaurant that specific day. However, I do believe that the manager would have given me the chance to explain all the information that he needed to know. I believe that he jumped into the conclusion of who I was. Having been very regular in the premises, as I explained to him, he would have taken his time to listen to me. However, that was not the case. He felt that I was not to be trusted as much as I explained myself to him. At the end of the day, I went home disappointed that I had not been able to gain trust from the manager. I also think that use of several words by the supplies management made it hard for me to communicate the message. He asked me why I had not been wise to consult him before I went into the premises. The use of the words not wise acted as a barrier for me. I felt that the words were incorrect. I could not use wrong words to counter the words, yet I had to communicate effectively. Faced with this, I withdrew much of the information I wanted to convey. Solution to the problem Following the poor communication that occurred that day, I had to get another session to convey the message that I meant to on that specific day. For one, I had to sit down and assess the situation in details. The recipient had not received the message after all. I, therefore, chose to do enough preparation for the next session. I wrote down the main points I wanted to convey and ensured that I mastered them. First, I had to explain who I was and the past experiences I had had with the restaurant. I also had to ensure that the message was brief, yet carried all the details of what exactly I wanted from the management. My attitude also had to change. I had to ensure that I should be ready to communicate, even in the place where the unexpected scenarios occurred. The other factor I had to consider was the fact that the audience had changed. This meant that the language had to change; I had to use a different approach this time. I had to present the information in a way that the supplies management could understand. It meant that several key words had to be used so that the message would be conveyed effectively. In the next session, communication was easy. The feedback was positive, thanks to the confidence I portrayed on the meeting. I was able to use correct words and was very keen to ensure that I was precise. The supplies manager was satisfied that I was the right person to continue delivering in their premises. More so, I was able to answer all the questions that the manager asked. I had anticipated some of the questions, while some were totally unexpected. However, coupled with confidence, I ga ve very satisfactoory answers. Communication calls for any given person to be accurate and precise (Balmud 2008, pp. 48-53). Some details need to be avoided, while others retained. This demands enough preparation and assessment of situation at hand. The audience also differs and must be handled differently. One must consider the exact words to use before even communicating to given audiences. In my case scenario, I was never prepared for a different audience. I did not have the exact words to approach the situation. The experience that one has had in communication may interfere with the ability of the person to make effective communication in future. This, then, calls for psychological preparation so that one is able to face the situation at hand in a whole different way. In my experience, I had to ensure that I would get to deal with the psychological problems that the experience created. I had to ensure that I was looking at the management without fear and anxiety. Other obstacles that can occur during communication include anger, sadness among other psychological barriers (Balmud 2008, pp. 47-52). In my situation, our communication occurs in face-to-face channel, and according to this channel I maynt able to hide my sudden reactions maybe anger by the managers choice of words. Remember Visual and Vocal codes are almost 70% of our communication. This would have meant loss of focus in the exact information I wanted to convey. I could also have used incorrect language and words in the very momen t of anger and disappointment. Another scenario would have been stereotypical attitudes from the management. He could have formed a wrong opinion on my personality, and as such fail to give me another opportunity to communicate effectively. All these barriers to communication must be addressed. The attitudes must change towards ensuring effective communication occurs. The noise levels must be minimal, and, at the same time, have the correct language to ensure effective communication occurs. Effective communication is far much more important than anything else in the world. To ensure that people get good feedback every time they are passing across any information is of great importance. It is important, therefore, to learn the dynamics of good communication. It is important to ensure that people will have received with gladness what others were communicating. I realized that poor communication is very expensive. I would have well lost the opportunity to make business transactions in future. I had to overcome the barriers that I was faced with so that communication was enhanced in the future. The easier any individual is able to overcome the obstacles, the easier for them to make progress in effective communication. Buy custom Transactional Model of Communication essay
Saturday, November 23, 2019
By the Same Token By the Same Token By the Same Token By Maeve Maddox The word token is used with several meanings. From an Old English verb meaning Ã¢â¬Å"to show,Ã¢â¬ in the broadest sense a token is Ã¢â¬Å"something that serves to indicate a fact; a sign or a symbol.Ã¢â¬ The sign could be miraculous or merely evidence of something: Ã I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. Genesis, 9:13, KJV God granted these holy men [the 100 fed miraculously by Elisha] a gracious token that the famine had lifted The retiring employee received a watch as a token of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s appreciation. As a physical object, a token may be a metal or plastic disk that serves to show that money has been paid for transportation or admission (e.g., a bus token). Board games like Monopoly include tokens used in play. The expression Ã¢â¬Å"by the same tokenÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"for the same reasonÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"in the same way.Ã¢â¬ Here are two correct examples of its use: there was little evidence to substantiate the gossip and, by the same token, there was little to disprove it Ã¢â¬âexample, OxfordDictionaries because his mind is flexible it responds quickly Ã¢â¬ ¦ to what is before it, and by the same token it can call up from within a host of appropriate ideas example, Merriam-Webster As is happening to many venerable expressions in this age of limited reading of traditional literature, Ã¢â¬Å"by the same tokenÃ¢â¬ is being altered by speakers who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t quite sure how to use it: However at the same token, this same conversation could apply to couples who go through that process together In the same token, it cannot disregard basic issues of translation theory. Does my body include the oxygen I am about to inhale and, on the same token, should I include the air I am about to exhale? Not only is the preposition by being incorrectly replaced by at, in or on, the meaning is being lost: I dont dislike dogs (or other animals), but by the same token, I dont want them in my house. Here the meaning seems to be Ã¢â¬Å"on the other hand.Ã¢â¬ With a documentation date of 1463, Ã¢â¬Å"by the same tokenÃ¢â¬ has had a good run in English. Could be that the expressionÃ¢â¬âfor some speakers at leastÃ¢â¬âhas reached retirement age. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Homograph Examples34 Writing Tips That Will Make You a Better WriterHonorary vs. Honourary
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Pschology - Essay Example At the presynaptic nerve terminal, chemical neurotransmitters are discharged by neurons. The neurotransmittersÃ¢â¬â¢ movement achieves communication of information between neurons and cells across the small gap known as the synapse. Neurotransmitters vary in terms of their functions. Some of the chemical markers serve regulative, stimulatory, motive, and inhibitory roles. For instance, neurotransmitters are important in the regulatory processes of emotion and sensation. Therefore, their role in determining an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is expansive. Dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin are the most commonly cited neurotransmitters. Dopamine is typically discharged by naturally rewarding factors like sex and food. Along with stimulating effects, dopamine serves many additionalÃ roles, such asÃ in behavior, learning, motivation, pleasure, sleep, sexual arousal, mood, movement, and attention. Likewise, the neurotransmitter serotonin regulates behavior and mood. Some facets of behavior that serotonin affects includes appetite, learning, sleep, and memory. With optimal levels, norepinephrine fosters a sense of wellbeing and a feeling of euphoria during stressful conditions. With excessive levels of norepinephrine, individuals can suffer physiological symptoms of fear and anxiety. From these three cases, one can clearly see that neurotransmitters greatly affect individual behaviors. For instance, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are each commonly correlated with symptoms of depression. If an organismÃ¢â¬â¢s body is an aircraft, the brain is analogous to the pilot. Besides serving as the root of consciousness and rationality, the brain is reducible to being the root of behavior. Like the control room of a power plant, the brain contains several areas for monitoring and regulating different behaviors. These brain regions include the cerebellum, the diencephalon, the brainstem, and the cerebrum. The cerebellum controls the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of bala nce and equilibrium. The frontal lobe of the cerebellum controls a large portion of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors. Because this region conditions emotions, it plays a central role in the daily experiences of human beings. Likewise, the limbic system, which refers to brain structures such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala, also retains an important role in the regulation of motivation and emotion. The hypothalamus affects basic life functions. For instance, sleep, sexual drive, appetite, and stress reactions are all factors conditioned by the hypothalamus. The amygdala is located in the posterior lobes of the forebrain and causes emotional aggression as manifested by anger, fear, or disgust. Additionally, it is responsible for the effects of pheromones with regard to sexuality and reproduction. The orbitofrontal cortex, which is also a part of the frontal lobes of the brain, also affects many of those emotional reactions initiated in the amygdala. Disturbances in the limbic system will greatly affect an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and mood. Ultimately, the brainstem is the information center where all sensory input is filtered. The diencephalon contributes to this filtering of sensory information during the process of regulating pain sensation, thirst, hunger, and temperature sensitivity. The cerebrum is the largest region of the brain and retains an important role in transferring information between the two sides of the brains, in addition to regulating inhibitions, impulses, and judgments. Sensory processing is a
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
African American treatment by the police Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
African American treatment by the police - Essay Example Most African Americans, particularly those victimized by crime is a disproportionate manner, have little trust that the police would treat them in a fair manner. On the contrary, the population believes that law enforcement officials should treat all people equally regardless of their race, gender, or religious affiliation. This issue has attracted considerable attention, in different parts of the country based on the growing rates of victimization and exaggeration y the media in the United States (University of Texas, 2013). This paper will depict the issue of victimization of African American by law enforcement officials. It will also discuss how the media influences the perception of the public towards a criminal, and how media depiction of an incident affects individuals involved in a criminal activity. Researchers have revealed that a large number of black young men feel targeted by the police, particularly when driving or walking. In this case, they feel judged by stereotypes, which fuel resentment, hopelessness, and fear. Statistically, when targeting issues such as implementation of a drug policy, pulling individuals over, or implementing a death penalty, various racial disparities prevail. As such, just as most black Americans are influenced by crime in a disproportionate manner, the police equally scrutinize them unfairly (Fiducia Project, 2012). In 2010, for instance, African-Americans, representing 13% of the total population, accounted for about 55% gun homicides victims. These conflicting feelings have resulted to creation of incompatible policies. During the mid-1980s, a time when cocaine epidemic was dominant, tearing apart communities and families, and fueling murders, black lawmakers were on the forefront to facilitate in the establishment of laws that would help control the menace. This issue led
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Planning function of management for Boeing Essay The purpose of this paper is to explain the planning functions of management for the organization known as Boeing. Boeing is an aerospace company; they build passenger airplanes, military aircraft, satellites, and missiles. Boeings planning functions of management is influenced by internal and external factors. These factors such as the economy and competition directly influence the strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. Boeing is the largest manufacturer of satellites, commercial jetliners, and military aircraft in the world. The company is also a global market leader in missile defense, human space flight, and launch services. Chicago-based Boeing has an extensive global reach with customers in 145 countries. Boeing operates under the strictest principles of corporate governance. With 152,091 employees, Boeing posted 2004 revenues of $52.45 Billion.(FCSR, 2008)The state of the economy is a huge external factor of how the Boeing organization operates both, strategically and tactically. In 2001, the economy was hit hard and along with many other companys Boeing was suffering financially. Boeing was saved when they were offered a contract with U.S. Air force worth $49.2 billion (Advantage Business Media, 2007). Boeing also teamed up with Saudi Arabia Airlines in 1995 (Boeing, 2001). Boeings competition is another external factor that influences the organization both tactically and strategically. The company known as Airbus is Boeings biggest competition. Airbus is the leading manufacturer of commercial jets (Yahoo, 2008). Recently Boeing has been having internal issues affecting their assembly line and has cause a shortage in production which in turn has been affecting deadlines. With Boeing experiencing problems clients have been turning to Airbus to fulfill their needs. Lockheed Martin is Boeings biggest competition in defense systems (Yahoo, 2008).Currently; Boeing and Lockheed Martin are working together on some projects to help meet the high demand. The government is another factor that influences how the organization operates. Regulations affect the amount of output that Boeing can manufacture. When Boeing designs a new plane, before Boeing can test fly them they must first obtain a certificate issued by the U.S. Government; TheÃ U.S. Government has designed this system of requirements to insure that each new plane is safe before the plane is flown. There are many safety requirements that must be met before the plane is approved to be flown; these requirements are enforced by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. These requirements affect the production of Boeings airplanes by causing a delay before the aircraft can be cleared for use. The planning function of management is affected by several legal issues. In 2005, a lawsuit was filed against Boeing. The lawsuit, filed in federal court in Kansas, alleges that Ducommuns Gardena plant made more than 1,900 defective parts used on at least 32 of Boeings airplanes, including 737s, 747s, 757s and 767s. The planes were delivered to the U.S. Air Force and Navy, as well as foreign military forces in Japan and Italy between March 1998 and November 2004. (Pae, 2005)The three employees who filed the lawsuit, were members of a Boeing audit team, contend that the parts did not conform to Federal Aviation Administration requirements. Boeing was aware of the problem but continued to sell the airplanes, falsely claiming that they were FAA approved, according to the lawsuit. The suit alleges that Ducommun kept two sets of books for manufacturing parts fake books for Boeing and the FAA and real books for itself. (Pae, 2005) Boeing is a company that is respected for cooperate social responsibility. Boeing has joined the Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibility, and is now entitled to display The Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibilitys Gold Seal of Approval as a Socially Responsible Company. (FCSR, 2008) The Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibility encourages corporations to be Socially Responsible, and to assist them in achieving commercial success in ways that respect ethical values, people in need, their communities and the environment. (FCSR, 2008)Boeing has a very strict code of ethics policy that is in place to protect both the corporations interest and the interest of its employees. Boeing employees are required to obey all aspects of the code of ethics set forth by the company. The code of ethics adopted complies with the standards set forth in the New York Stock Exchanges corporate governance rules. The Boeing Company will administer ethics and compliance programs to promote i ts commitment to integrity and values as set forth in the Boeing values and Code of Conduct and to ensure compliance with laws,Ã rules, and regulations. These programs will inform employees of company policies and procedures regarding ethical business conduct and help them to resolve questions and to report suspected violations. Managers are responsible for supporting implementation of ethics and business conduct programs, and monitoring compliance to the companys values and ethical business conduct guidelines through such programs. Managers are responsible for creating an open and honest environment in which employees feel comfortable in bringing issues forward. Retaliation against employees who raise genuine concerns will not be tolerated. (Boeing, 2008)All employees must sign and abide by the Boeing Code of Conduct, which requires that they understand the code, and ask questions, seek guidance, report suspected violations, and express concerns regarding compliance with this policy and the related procedures. (Boeing, 2008) To support the requirement for complete and accurate financial records and reporting, all employees of the Finance organization have an additional Code of Conduct for Finance. (Boeing, 2008)In Conclusion, There are several issues that can impact outcomes for management planning for the Boeing Company such as legal issues, ethical issues, and social responsibility, Along with factors can influence the companies planning operations both strategically, and tactically. The examples of these factors given in this paper are the economy, the government, and Boeings competitors such as Airbus. Even though Boeing has had its ups and downs from production problems to several legal issues Boeing has remained a globally known leader in their industry, respected for their cooperate social responsibility and known for their strong code of ethics. References Boeing. (2008). Ethics. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/ethics/Boeing. (2008, February). Retrieved September 14, 2008, from Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibility: http://www.fcsr.plPae, p. (May, 2005). Boeing sued by three workers. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from http://articles.latimes.com/2005/may/28/business/fi-ducommun28Vandore, E. (2008, January 17). Airbus, Boeing Swamped by Orders. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from San Francisco Chronicle: http://www.sfgate.comYahoo. (2008, March). The Boeing Company Profile. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from Yahoo: http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/10/10221.html
Friday, November 15, 2019
Bill Gates The New Revolutionary Creator Introduction Throughout my journey in this honors seminar, I have read about several creators (in Creating Minds) who were pioneers or masters in their respective domains. Each of these creators (Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Ghandi) was researched by Howard Gardner who then classified each one as representing one of his seven intelligences (Intrapersonal, Logical/Mathematical, Visual/Spatial, Musical, Verbal/Linguistic, Kinesthetic, and Interpersonal). Interestingly, one of the main reasons he chose those particular individuals as representatives of each intelligence was due to the fact that they had all lived within a certain time period and had made some of their most significant breakthroughs in the early part of the 20th century. Their names and their work still live on today (even long after their deaths). They have been some of the most influential people whose works have helped to shape our perceptions of our art, music, literature, dance, ourselves, each other, and the very fabric of the universe itself. However, many critics of Gardner's work asked why he chose the people he did. "Why didn't he choose Beethoven for Musical or James Joyce for Verbal/Linguistic?" Now that our class has finished studying each of these creators, each one of us has the opportunity to research and write about a creator whom we think should be included in Gardner's book. While I recognize that there have been many creators from the past who could be included, I find myself asking the question "What about creators who are living right now? What about those who are shaping our perceptions, ideologies, and society right before our own eyes?" Along with that, who would be som... ...r part in shaping our present lives. His desire to bring PC's to the homes of consumers has been realized. Partly owing to the advances in computer hardware, but mostly owing to his keen economic insight and gifted ability to create computer software. How history will ultimately cast Bill Gates is still undetermined. Despite all the criticisms of him and his company, I hope that Bill Gates will be recognized a genuine historical creator and have his name placed among the ranks Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Ghandi. Resources Bill Gates Biography Page: Http://www.microsoft.com/billgates/bio.htm Gates, Bill. (1996). The Road Ahead (2nd e.). New York: Penguin Books. Rensin, David. (1994). The Bill Gates Interview. Playboy Magazine. (accessed through Britannica Online). Sulloway, Frank. (1993). Creating Minds. New York: Basic Books.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Ms. P Andy Lau Argumentative Essay Censorship is the government is control the media, censorship can used to control or protect people. Some groups feel that books with objectionable material should be censored for many different reasons,such as sexual content,against a religion ,bad language,racism violence. I believe that books shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be censored because we have the right to read it,and it depends on your own personality. Therefore I intend to prove that the banning of books in schools is completely unjustified. In Fahrenheit 451,There is a old women in the story,she is willing to die to not leave her books. It shows that books are so important to us, and our society that she was willing to die rather than give them up,also the character Guy Montag is curious to read those books,she quitted his job for those books. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"You have insulted me Ã¢â¬Å" by kurt Vonnegut. He is angry because his books got burned by the school board. Ã¢â¬ ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because people speak coarsely in real lifeÃ¢â¬ this shows people speak bad word in real life,so why canÃ¢â¬â¢t books have bad words. Both the article supports my opinion that book shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be banged from high school. Ã¢â¬ Two books pulled form Republic school library shelvesÃ¢â¬ this article is two of the three Republic High books singled out in a public complaint last year will now removed from the school curriculum and library. Those three books are Ã¢â¬Å"SpeakÃ¢â¬ by Laurie Halse Anderson. Kurt VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ Slaughterhouse FiveÃ¢â¬ and Sarh OcklerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Twenty Boy SummerÃ¢â¬ . And they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t banned Ã¢â¬Å"SpeakÃ¢â¬ because it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t describe sex so much,and it has a good message. Also they just banned those books in classroom,students can still read it in library and independence reading . The second article is talking about parents and school districts have debated what books are appropriate for a school library collection and what books should be banned. ACLU didnÃ¢â¬â¢t ban books because they say its against the First Amendment . also they saidÃ¢â¬ You clearly canÃ¢â¬â¢t remove a book because you disagree with the ideas in themÃ¢â¬ ,this shows books shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get banned . We have to see different face of books ,bad way and good way. I believe that books should not be censored because books can send us good messages and our imaginary . It also depends on your own personality,if we have a evil mind ,we could only see the evil thing in the books,if we are normal human,we suppose to able to learn something form books,so I am sure that banning of books in schools is completely unjustified.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Procedure The independent variables for this experiment are the types of water solutions used. The dependent variable is the boiling temperature of the water which will be measured by a thermometer. The control group is the water. The constants are the Stove top and amount of water used in each solution the starting temperature of the water and the Pot. 1. Pour 2 cups of water in the pot add 1 tablespoon of sugar then stir it up until all sugar is dissolved. 2. Turn on the stove, set the stove to itÃ¢â¬â¢s highest setting, place the pot on and time it with a stopwatch. Record theÃ time and temperature of the solution as soon as it begins to boil. Record the data on your table. 3. Rinse pot vigorously to remove impurities, and allow the stovetop to cool. 4. Pour 2 cups of water in the pot add 1 tablespoon of salt and stir. Repeat steps 2 and 3. 5. Pour 2 cups of water in the pot then add 1 tablespoon of water. Repeat step 2. Observations When boiling the water it was quite pure and clear. There was no smell to it0 when boiling the salt water it was cloudy and the bottom of the pot was coated with salt. When boiling the sugar water it was cloudy but no residue was left in the pot. Conclusion Based on the graphs water has the highest boiling point over both salt and sugar water. The sugar water took the most energy to begin to boil and the salt water took the least as the heat evaporated some of the salt, which was left coating the pan. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think we changed the waters boiling point by adding a new substance but we did change how fast it would come to a boil by making it more or less dense.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Good Advice About Bad Writing Good Advice About Bad Writing Good Advice About Bad Writing By Mark Nichol How does one avoid being a bad writer? Presumably, most people visiting or subscribing to this site neednÃ¢â¬â¢t concern themselves with being accused of high crimes against the English language, but allow me to make a distinction between poor writing and bad writing. Poor writing is lazy, careless writing, an attempt to communicate without adequate preparation or care. It is writing replete with passive construction, limp verbs, leaden clichÃ ©s, mixed metaphors, dangling participles and misplaced modifiers, and other enemies of clear prose. Without vigilance, we are all vulnerable we can easily produce any one of these errors, and perhaps more than one, in a single article or essay or short story. But poor writing is a multiplicity of such mistakes, and it is a sin of omission rather than one of commission: We might commit all these transgressions because we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know or recognize them. Bad writing is more of a challenge, because it is a sin of commission: You have to make an effort to write badly though it is easier to achieve than you might think, because many very accomplished, intelligent people do so. How does one manage to join such exalted company? Bad writing is that which demonstrates a surfeit of intention. (Translation: Bad writing happens when you try too hard.) Forty years ago, S. Leonard Rubenstein, now a professor emeritus at Pennsylvania State University, wrote Ã¢â¬Å"If a man intends to impress someone, his work will not be clear, because he does not intend clarity: he intends to impress.Ã¢â¬ And that is when writing often goes bad: Writers let their desire to demonstrate erudition, artistry, or cleverness acceptable in small doses overwhelm their effort to communicate. We see it in academic and technical writing, laden with polysyllabic prose and complicated and extensive sentence construction that obfuscates rather than opens our eyes. We see it in lay nonfiction, when arguments fight themselves, explanations leave us more confused than before, and overwrought overwriting leaves us overwhelmed. We see it in fiction, when novelists and short story writers belabor their narrative with contrived constructions and purple prose. Here are some tips on avoiding the pitfalls of bad writing: 1. Be Fresh The purpose of metaphor and simile is to evoke recognition by comparison or allusion. Write these analogies to aid your readers with your clarity of vision, not to serve your ego, and avoid clichÃ ©s. 2. Be Clear When drafting expository fiction or nonfiction, record your voice as you spontaneously describe a scene or explain a procedure, transcribe your comments, and base your writing on the transcription, revising only to select more vivid verbs and more precise nouns and to seek moderation in adverbs and adjectives. 3. Be Active Use the passive voice judiciously. 4. Be Concise Write tight. 5. Be Thorough Accept that writing is the easy part; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the revision that makes or breaks your project and requires most of your effort. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:36 Adjectives Describing LightDeck the Halls50 Plain-Language Substitutions for Wordy Phrases
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Archaeological Evidence for Domesticating Potatoes Potato (Solanum tuberosum) belongs to the Solanaceae family, which also includes tomatoes, eggplants, and chili peppers. Potato is currently the second widest used staple crop in the world. It was first domesticated in South America, in the Andean highlands, between Peru and Bolivia, more than 10,000 years ago. Different species of potato (solanum) exist, but the most common worldwide is the S. tuberosum ssp. Tuberosum. This species was introduced in Europe in the mid-1800s from Chile when a fungus disease almost completely destroyed S. tuberosum ssp. andigena, the original species imported by the Spanish directly from the Andes in the 1500s. The edible part of the potato is its root, called tuber. Because the tuber of wild potatoes contains poisonous alkaloids, one of the first steps made by ancient Andean farmers toward domestication was to select and replant a variety with low alkaloid contents. Also, since wild tubers are quite small, farmers also selected the bigger examples. Archaeological Evidence of Potato Cultivation Archaeological evidence suggests that people were consuming potatoes in the Andes as early as 13,000 years ago. In the Tres Ventanas Cave in the Peruvian highlands, several root remains, including S. tuberosum, have been recorded and direct-dated to 5800 cal B.C. (C14 calibrated date) Also, remains of 20 potato tubers, both white and sweet potato, dating between 2000 and 1200 B.C. have been found in the trash middens of four archaeological sites in the Casma Valley, on the coast of Peru. Finally, in an Inca period site near Lima, called Pachacamac, pieces of charcoal have been found within the remains of potato tubers suggesting that one of the possible preparation of this tuber involved baking. Potatoes Around the World Although this may be due to a lack of data, current evidence indicates that the spread of potatoes from Andean highlands to the coast and the rest of the Americas was a slow process. Potatoes reached Mexico by 3000-2000 B.C., probably passing through Lower Central America or the Caribbean Islands. In Europe and North America, the South American root arrived only in the 16th and 17th century, respectively, after its importation by the first Spanish explorers. Sources Hancock, James, F., 2004, Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species. Second Edition. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA Ugent Donald, Sheila Pozoroski and Thomas Pozoroski, 1982, Archaeological Potato Tuber Remains from the Casma Valley of Peru, Economic Botany, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 182-192.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Lab report - Essay Example To safeguard our planets future, we need to aim at the orange line level by use of existing technologies. This can also be achieved by coming up with new inventions to meet the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s energy needs over the next 50 years, and reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide from doubling as projected in the black line. It is for this purpose that we formed a group of three students to come up with an energy wedge that is likely to tackle this problem squarely and at all angles. Our energy stabilization wedge is mainly concerned with efficient utilization of energy, and use of renewable sources as the major active ways of reducing carbon emission by the year 2055. Stabilization at any level demands that net emissions do not remain constant, but in due course drop to zero. Faced with only two solutions of either maintaining the current emission of carbon in the next 50 years or reducing the production of carbon in the atmosphere by the similar amount of time, we opted to build our wedge on the basis practical reduction of carbon in the atmosphere by half for the next 50 years. This option was opted for the various reasons of changing environmental conditions and the sudden changes in technology that demand use of carbon energy (Levy, 2010). The world is required to reduce atmospheric carbon from current 8 billion tons per year by half hence ensuring only 200 billion tons by the year 2055. This is only possible by increasing sufficient use of transport. This is mainly by adopting efficient fuel engines in terms of motor vehicles. Another way is by reducing the distance travelled while at the same time ensuring efficiency in construction and building hence reducing electricity use. This is possible by utilizing solar energy and using materials that conserve energy during winter. Use of renewable sources of energy is our next energy wedge, which aims at using sources in the
Friday, November 1, 2019
Somebody who changed others lives - Research Proposal Example (Dyson) Galileo was one such scientist too who refused to accept the conventional wisdom of his day and propagated ideas and scientific discoveries which clearly challenged the mighty of his days. Galileo was an Italian physicist, astronomer, philosopher as well as inventor who played critical role in the scientific revolution. It is because of his contribution that Galileo is often considered as the father of the modern science. (Reston) His most noteworthy contributions are in the field of astronomy where he not only discovered the four largest satellites of Jupiter but also studied the different phases of the Venus. Above all he invented telescope which allowed physicists to see the cosmos and make important astronomical discoveries. It is also argued that this invention of Galileo was also a start of the era of the technology which has propelled the society to this current level. However, the ideas of the Galileo were considered as rebellious according to the Church and his writings were banned. His ideas on the heliocentrism that earth is not stationary and it revolves around the sun were specially considered as against the religious teachings. In Bible it is written that the world is firm and it cannot be moved therefore the discoveries of Galileo were in direct opposition with the biblical references. It was therefore because of this reason that he was also asked to stand a trial for heresy. During that trial, he was declared in violation of the religious scriptures and therefore was ordered to remain in the house arrest for the rest of his life. His life was saved when he officially retracted his claim that earth is not stationary and indirectly endorsed the claims of the church at that time. The life of the Galileo is truly a life of a rebel because he presented ideas which were vehemently denied yet his ideas decisively shaped the way