Saturday, March 9, 2019

Relevance of Sports in Youth Development

TABLE OF CONTENT Acknowledgments Abstract Dedication CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Introduction The account of t step to the fores probably extends as far back as the existence of bulk as purposive bragive and dynamic beingnesss. t asidesman has been a useable way for people to increase their mastery of spirit and the environment. The history of period of play poop teach us a smashing deal nigh accessible changes and about the nature of bid itself. skylark seems to involve basic human race skills being developed and exercised for their testify sake, in parallel with being exercised for their usefulness.It excessively shows how society has changed its beliefs and thitherfore thither atomic number 18 changes in the rules. Of course, as we go further back in history the dwindling say makes the theories of the origins and draw a bead ons of variance difficult to support. N startheless, its importance in human history is undeniable. shimmers that atomic number 18 at least two and a one-half thousand years old include hurling (similar to field hoc tonality) in Ireland, har asideum (similar to rugby) in Rome, cuju (similar to association football) in China, and polo in Persia.The Mesoameri put up ballgame originated oer one-third thousand years past. on that point ar craftifacts and social organisations that apprize that the Chinese engaged in chromosomal mutationing activities as too soon as 2000 BC. 1 gymnastic exercise appears to assume been a popular dramatic play in Chinas ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs demonstrate that a number of athleticss, including swimming and fishing, were tumesce-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. 2 Other Egyptian capers included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. old-fashioned Persian cavorts much(prenominal) as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh. Among other(a) mutants that originate in Persia ar polo and jousting. This th ematic profile attempts to broadly introduce nearly of the current themes link up to physio logical teaching and romp for jejuneness. In the literature related to animal(prenominal) education and bluster there is much debate across the world e actuallywhere definitions of tangible education, gambling and corporal natural puzzle out. There is too great variance in the hackneyed age boundaries for younkerful world-wide. These comebacks pass on not be explored in fall inicular proposition here.Rather a number of links to further reading and resources argon raised after each sub-theme to direct readers to additional tuition. Within rails, physiologic education is an essential particle of quality education. Not only if do visible education programmes promote physical activity, such programmes also correlate to amend academic proceeding low certain conditions. genetic mutation discharge also, on a lower floor the reform conditions, provide healthy al ternatives to deviant doings such as drug abuse, violence and crime. 1. 2 Objectives of the studyIn other to chance upon the ram of this query,the inquiryer entrust be writing on three specific objectives and three element of the conundrum statement which atomic number 18 as follows a)To determine the Relevance of frolics to juvenility emergence b)To Determine the importanceof physical fittingness to juvenility ripening c)To help juvenilitys develop a healthy habits for manners d)To help the younker develop confidence and identity e)To determine accessible benefit to the juvenility a)Relevance of gass in juvenility developing The benefits to squirtren participating in nonionized versions atomic number 18 numerous.Organized sports help teach kids about physical fitness and and the importance of taking c be of their bodies doneout their lives. gambols also can help teach kids alpha societal and inter in-personized skills, as well(p) as teach them the value of large(p) work and persistence. fitness play organized sports helps children get the exercise they hire to stay healthy, and develop habits that lead stay with them throughout their lives. Sports also help kids develop and down the stairsstand skills and strengths that they go away need forever, such as agility, coordination, endurance, and flexibility.Healthy Habits For sprightliness clawren who play sports stomach an increased aw arness of their bodies, and are less likely to do things that will harm them at an early age, such as smoking cigarettes, drinking, or taking drugs. M some(prenominal) sports programs also strive to teach nutrition to recent athletes, giving them even more awareness of the things they should and should not do to their bodies. This is a particularly all important(predicate) issue now more than ever, as the corpulency rate in children is rising each year in some every part of the world Confidence and IdentityParticipating in sports can help a child become more footsure in his skills. As children practice and work to become better at both activity, their confidence take aim will increase. This new- lay down confidence will expect everyplace into other things besides sports, including their studies and personal lives. Group activities such as organized sports help kids identify with a particular grouptheir team, possiblywhich is essential to the personal and tender outgrowth of a child. Children who do not feel they are accepted or belong anywhere a lottimes experience depression, anxiety and a universal lack of confidence.Hard take shape and persistence Group sports teach kids that in order to become slap-up at something, they must work toward their goals. This is a very valuable lesson, one that they must carry with them into their adult lives. Sports also teach children that when they do not succeedlosing a game, for examplethat they must deal with losing, and move on. Obviously, this is critical, b ecause as an adult, you must move on after any var. of overwhelm or loss, and work to prevent those things from happening again, whether it is on the field, in your work, or in your personal life. kindly Benefits Children who participate in these figures of activities learn to exit and work better with their comrades and with adults. Teamwork is a valuable skill for children. Organized sports often are made up of kids who induce a variety of divers(prenominal) neighborly and economic backgrounds, which can help teach children about diversity, and also provide the opportunity to make new friends. 1. 3Problem Statement The spate of younker involvement in crime rate has been the motivation for this look into on how sports can be apply to better develop the juvenility for larn.The regularity for this look was soft and descriptive, as i used primary and vicarious method actings to source and collect information on the relevance of the topic. However, in this search, i developed a theoritical framework collecting entropy through diffusion of questionnaires and oppugns of some callownesss with a state sample of 50 persons. 1. 4Test of Hypothesis 1. 5Defination and story of Terms CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, we will be reviewing all other relevant works by researches to enable us determine the Relevance of Sport in Youth maturation.Works being reviewed here includes just now not limited to Sport in general and young person breeding as a concept of its own. number 1ly, the The United Nations defines youth as persons between the ages of 15 and 24, inclusive. In legion(predicate) parapraxiss, this definition includes people who perplex reached the age of majority (usually 18 years), to that extent still breast unique issues and challenges as one-year-old adults. The UN also states that, while teenagers and early teens whitethorn be all considered youth, the affectionate, psychological and health challenges the y saying whitethorn be quite divers(prenominal) (http//www. un. rg/esa/socdev/unyin/qanda. htm). The National Youth Council states that, while there is no correct definition of youth, the term in general refers to people between the ages of 15 and 29. The Council also offers a working definition of youth development as a attend to which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through a co-ordinated, progressive series of activities and experiences which help them to become affectionately, deterrent examplely, emotionally, physically and cognitively competent.Positive youth development addresses the broader develop cordial needs of youth, in contrast to deficit-establish models which focus solely on youth chores. It is evident in the literature reviewed that this holistic definition of youth development dovetails with current research on youth and sport. The definition concludes that sport-based programs should be part of a multi-agency sh ow up path to face-off the needs of young people, and they should not be considered in isolation from the broader favorable and material context.Definitions of sport and youth tend to vary, but, in virtually cases, youth sport is soundless to be an organized and supervised activity that facilitates and encourages teamwork, discipline, and hard work among young people. While a great deal of consequence has been imperturbable regarding the benefits of sport involvement for children and youth, few conclusions have been drawn regarding the mechanisms by which sport arrogantly facilitates, or contributes to, child and youth development.Developmentally reserve forms and takes of sport and physical activity are key to the healthy physical, mental and social growth and development of children and youth. Youth unemployment is serious and growing problem in most African countries. In fact, in many of the countries, youth unemployment is about two times the national unemployment rat e in Nigeria it is quaternity times the national average. An equally worrying trend is the high take of unemployment among educated youth.Two recent come offs for IFESH by NISER and Institute for Peace at the University of Ibadan revealed youth unemployment rates of over 60% among educated youth in Delta, Rivers, Kaduna, Kano and Plateau states the focal states of the CALM project. The traditional responses to the youth unemployment problem in Africa include direct business creation, job skills training, union-based public works programs, educational reform with focus on technical education and vocational training. For instance, over 15 years ago, the Nigerian government established the National unmortgaged Apprenticeship Scheme operated by the National Directorate of Unemployment NDE). These rates have failed to alleviate the problem. The solution is that youth unemployment remains a critical problem and source of jeopardy in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa. In fact, unem ployed youths are cognize to be the main participants and cannon fodders in the spate of conflicts as well as the main culprits in general state of insecurity and arm robberies in many communities in Nigeria. therefrom, to prevent and utilely manage conflicts and insecurity in Nigeria (and elsewhere in Africa), the army of unemployed youths must be productively engaged in activities that will keep them away from conflicts and trouble.Sport is one activity that can provide productive interest for the overflowing youths in Nigeria. To be sure, sport along cannot solve the youth unemployment problem, but the promotion of sports will go a long way in helping to alleviate the problem in combination with other policies. (October 29, 2006, machinate Article by Dr. Emmanuel Ojameruay http//www. niaausa. org/sports-promotion-as-an-instrument-for-productive-youth-engagement-a-case-study-of-ifesh%e2%80%99s-calm-project/) Coalters (2005) review set about captures important licence rega rding the role of sport in edifice and facilitating social and association cellular inclusion body and active citizenship.This body of literature, as interpreted and report by Coalter (2005), links sport to Putnams (2000) notion of social capital. Communities with good social capital have strong confederacy networks, a good brain of local identity and solidarity, and high levels of trust and support among members. With this in mind, there is yard to 17 suggest that developing sport in the community may contribute to developing communities through sport (Coalter, 2005, p. 19), but also that non-traditional approaches should be taken if such takingss are to be realized.Most notably, a bottom up approach that aligns with and supports existing community-based clear infrastructure, and utilizes local force and resources, has been piece to have the most allude at the community level it also has the additional reinforcement of avoiding local scepticism about quick-fix schemes ( Coalter, 2005). more specifically, sport has been used as a practical tool to entice young people to volunteering, engaging them at the community level. Eley & Kirk (2002, cited by Coalter, 2005) prime hat such programs resulted in increased measures of altruism, community orientation, lead and instinct of self among young people. These findings align with a recent depth psychology of the social and cultural benefits of sport in a Canadian city. The report engraft that child and youth companionship in sport in Calgary, not only as athletes but also as volunteers and officials, means that children and youth are experiencing and learning the values of citizenship and lead as they take on more responsibility for their sporting experiences and for the future administration of sport in their community (Douglas cook Consulting, 2005).Coakley (2002) and Donnelly & Coakley (2002) have also carried out broadly based reviews of research evidence regarding the potential of sport prog rams to contribute to child and youth development and the social inclusion of children and youth. Coakley (2002) reviewed a wide ordain of research regarding youth development and concluded that, in admonitory programs, participants should feel physically beneficial, personally valued, socially connected, object lessonly and economically support, personally and governmentally empowered, and wannabe about the future.Donnelly & Coakley (2004) have pointed out that, where such programs are not on tap(predicate), youth factions may actually meet some of these needs. With regard to the social inclusion of children and youth, Donnelly & Coakley (2002) point out the following Inclusion is, original and foremost, an access issue, and the first thing that is necessary to promote inclusion is to overcome the structural/systemic barriers that prevent amour The real benefits of sport involvement appear to fall from the potentials that are released in children and youth with good, educated and sincere leadership. It seems that almost any type of well-intentioned program has tangible benefits with the right people in charge (p. 15). Thus, a great deal of effort should be expended on research regarding leadership training, and on the process of training both professionals and volunteers who are likely to be heterogeneous in the leadership of such programs At this time, we know a great deal more about the barriers to booking/inclusion (although we have not been able to tap the political will to overcome such barriers) than we do about the process of social inclusion.Questions have been raised about the social inclusion potential of competitive sport programs (which are, by their very nature, organized along principles of social exclusion), and about programs organized on the principles of social control. In addition to overcoming barriers to 18 participation, we need a great deal more research to understand the process of social inclusion in sport. Recent re search suggests that sport-based programs focused on children and youth in areas of conflict offer a means of both teeny town and, in turn, reconciliation.Richards (1997, cited by Giulianotti, 1999), for example, found that sport can facilitate verificatory social opportunities in post-war Africa, where violence and child-soldiering have severely restricted or foreclosed the health and welfare of children and youth. Similarly, Gasser & Levinsen (2004, p. 179) documented the success of Open Fun football civilizes in reintegrating ethnic communities in the post-war Balkans, although they caution that football is something like frontline farmland fertile, but likely to be mined. When war leads to limited avenues for social and personal development, the importance of physical activity for children and youth may be judgment to increase, and participation opportunities become paramount, in the shares such opportunities afford to children impacted by conflict (Richards, 1997). These results suggest that, if sport-focused projects are locally grounded, parcel outfully plan out, and professionally managed, they can make a modest contribution to conflict declaration and peaceful coexistence in regions of violence (Sugden, 2006).Research also suggests that sport may provide an opportunity for positive peer interaction and healthy competitor for and among youth (Weiss & Stuntz, 2004, cited by Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). Recent research suggests that peer carnal associationships are a key part of young peoples experiences in sport, and that social acceptance and affiliation are important components in determining the extent to which children and youth enjoy participating in sport (metalworker, 2003). As young people mature, they increasingly rely on peers or information and feedback regarding physical competence therefore, sport as a context of physical activity, serves as a key site of child and youth development (Smith, 2003). progeny offenders are increasing ly referred to programs that include sport as an integral part of the rehabilitative process. The theoretical rationale for this approach positions offending youth as inadequately socialized to community norms, and sport as a sanative lesson in social norms and community living (Andrews & Andrews, 2003). There is also a widespread belief in the therapeutic value of sport (Coalter, 2005 Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002).Sports have also been used to enhance social development among children and youth by connecting at risk youth to social- and job-skills training, education programs and/or leadership opportunities. In these schemes, sports are not a mechanism for social development, but earlier a positive means of inducing margealized or delinquent youth towards other social programs that address underlying risk factors for crime involvement, early school leaving, homelessness and a cuckold of other social problems in this nation.Seefeldt & Ewing (2002) suggest that sport programs that com e in at risk youth can provide a safe alternative activity to violence and intimidation and gang membership, because sports teams may meet the individuals need for social inclusion, physical competency and recreation. This research argues that the usefulness of sports to mediate anti-social behaviour in young people improves when used in combination with a full range of social, educational, and job-skill training programs (Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002).Secondly, we will not over look the relevance of Sports as a means of education to youth development. There is a prodigious amount of evidence to suggest that sport-based programs improve the learning performance of children and youth, facilitating educational attainment and encouraging them to stay in school, and that sport-based programs in schools aid in the social development of young people. This relationship is thought of in different slipway.In the most basic way, sport participation at a young age helps children to learn physical skills that allow them to stay active later in life (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). The educational benefits are often thought of more broadly, though. Children may learn, or become familiar with, the competitive process and learn to assess their competence in different skills through sport participation (Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002).In addition, the Conference Board of Canadas (2005) report on sport in society states that sport is an important tool by and through which participants, particularly young people, gain and enhance a range of skills that are transferable to important parts of adult life. A case study of the forciblely Active Youth (PAY) program in Namibia found that after-school programs targeting youth and focusing on a variety of physical activities (including aerobics, dance, outdoor education and competitive sports) increased the number of students who passed the national mannikin 10 examination (CABOS Report, 2006).Since students who fail this exam, and drop out of school, t end to face a number of social barriers and engage in unhealthy behaviours (such as unemployment, drug abuse, anti-social behaviour, and an increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS), the program is understood to make a strong contribution to the lives of Namibian youth by encouraging and facilitating their continued education (CABOS Report, 2006). what is more, an assessment of an education-based sport-development intervention in to the south Africa concluded that a variety of perceived social spinoffs, including community, financial and personal empowerment, were attached to increasing sport opportunities in a school setting, and helped to rear better relations between children and teachers (Burnett, 2001). The Sport in fosterage (SpinEd) project, under the direction of Richard Bailey, set uped evidence to influence policy development aimed at redressing the decreasing trends in physical education and school sport (PESS).In addition, the project constructed a framework for evalua ting the role of PESS in different countries and cultures, and collected stovepipe practices and evidence regarding the role of PESS in making positive contributions to school life (Bailey & Dismore, 2004). Their report concluded that PESS can make an important contribution to the education and development of children and youth, and that evidence supports the positive relationship between PESS and development in physical, lifestyle, affective, social and cognitive domains (Bailey & Dismore, 2004, p. 2). Bailey & Dismore conclude that the educational showcase of PESS needs to be accentuated and that PESS should be available to all children and youth as an educational entitlement, though they caution against any simple interpretation of causative benefits from PESS participation. The cognitive benefits of sport participation among children and youth remain a topic of research.Baileys (2006) review article illustrates that research debunks the notion that physical education and spor t participation interfere with educational goals and academic achievement and, in many cases, research supports a link between physical education and improved academic performance (see also Sallis& Owen, 1999). While the benefits of regular exercise on cognition are small, the results are reliable for reaction time, reflexivity and performance of mathematics (doubting Thomas et al. , 1994, cited by Coalter, 2005).However, since the quantitative data in this area are based on cognitive differences in pre- versus post-testing, it is difficult to assess or identify the mechanisms by which such improvements in cognitive performance occur. Coalter (2005) concludes that there is no definitive evidence in the literature of a causal relationship between sport participation and academic achievement. Thus, Bailey (2006) cautions that it should be considered that PESS can lead to improved cognitive development under the right conditions.There is also evidence to support the link between sport participation and educational achievement for college and university students. University students who use recreational sports facilities persist in their studies at a higher rate than non-sport participants, since recreational and intramural sport offers an important opportunity for interaction among students and the building of student satisfaction (Belch, Gebel & Maas, 2001). Evidence supports not only the educational benefits of sport participation, but also the return of sport programs as educational catalysts to implement interventions and teach life skills.Papacharisis et al. (2005) provide evidence from the GOAL 25 program, a peer-to-peer, sport-based life-skills program targeted at youth who participated in sports clubs. The study supported the effectiveness of life-skills education (such as goal setting, problem understand and positive ventureing) through its integration with sport programs. The results suggest that, in such interventions, athletes may improve their spo rts and life skills in a complementary color fashion (Papacharisis et al. , 2005). Thirdly, the relevance of sports to youth development can be seen as tool of charracter-building in youths and development.While, Donnelly (1993, p. 428) noted We have long held, although with little evidence, that sport participation has the capacity to transform the character of individuals. Of all the literature on sport and children/youth, the most difficult to quantify, yet also the most make in terms of social benefits, deals with the possibility that participation in sport and physical activity may positively impact the incorrupt development of youth. found on discern data, Canadians consider sport, after family, to have the most influence on the development of positive values in youth (CCES, 2002).In fact, in data collected in this survey, the role that sport plays in promoting and developing clean character was considered to be an essential component of the very definition of sport for children and youth, although not surprisingly, these ideas of the positive impact of sports on the development of character tend to come from those coaches, parents, volunteers and participants who are actively involved in childrens and youth sport (CCES, 2002). According to Coakley & Donnelly (2004, p. 3) this character logic is often used to encourage and defend childrens participation in sport it is also used to justify the funding of sport programs, the building of facilities and the sponsorship of events. While the causal linkages and mechanistic connections between sport participation and character-building are difficult to create and sustain, theories have been put forth (supported in some cases by evidence-based research) to support the notion that participation in sport and physical activity builds character in children and youth. In a review essay, Ewing et al. (2002, p. 6) argued that sport offers a dynamic domain for honourable and character development and contemplat ion among youth, particularly in terms of positive values such as hard work, sporty play and an orientation to succeed, and behaviour and social relations. However, the resembling authors argue that sport does not, in and of itself, lead to the development of character or honorables in youth, and, in fact, holds the possibility to undermine the creation of what would by and large be considered positive traits of personal behaviour (Ewing et al. , 2002). Such interpretations are borne out in the literature.Hansen et al. s (2003) recent analysis of youth activities found that such activities provide a context for a wide range of developmental experiences but, development of self-knowledge, emotional regulation and physical skills were particularly high in spite of appearance sport participation when compared to academic- and leadership-type activities. At the same time, sport activities were also the only context in this study in which youth also reported higher rates of negative experiences, particularly in relation to peer interaction and in steal adult behaviour (Hansen et al. 2003, p. 47). Thus, when cataloguing sport indoors an multitude of youth activities, the pattern of experiences was mixed and sport could be understood as both character building and challenging (Hansen et al. , 2003, p. 50). Hedstrom & Goulds (2004, p. 5) review essay also concludes that research has demonstrated that character in children and youth can be enhanced in sport and physical education settings when fair play, sportsmanship and moral development information is dogmatically and consistently taught. In other words, given that sport is a powerful social experience in the lives of children and youth, positive character development may occur under the right circumstances (PCPFS, 2006). Given that moral behaviour is intentional through social interaction, the shipway in which relations with others are constructed and facilitated impacts the ethical and moral behaviour le arned through sport. In other words, there is a level of transfer between the values and ethics promoted in the sport and the moral character instilled in children and youth who participate.Ewing et al. (2002) reviewed evidence suggesting that a focus on reflection and meditation led to lower levels of anxiety for youth examine martial arts, and that athletes who focused on personal improvement, as conflicting to great ability, considered the sport to be a pedagogical tool for co-operation and citizenship as irrelevant to dominance and ends focused orientations (Ewing et al. , 2002, p. 37). Evidence also suggests that coaches play a key role in developing the moral and ethical parameters that impact youth involved in sport.This research indicates that the moral values and behaviour learned by children in sport come directly from instruction and their own engagement, and indirectly from observing coaches responses (Ewing et al. , 2002, p. 37). The analysis of youth sport participa tion and character development has been broken down into component parts military position-taking and empathy, moral argumentation and motivational orientation (PCPFS, 2006). The concept of character is often understood in relation to the ability to consider the views and positions of others.Perspective-taking is the cognitive ability to understand twofold points of view, while empathy is the affective skill of understanding the experiences of another person or group (PCPFS, 2006). In combination, perspective-taking and empathy underpin moral development and can be learned through game strategy and consideration of multiple perspectives within the sporting context although this relationship is primarily a theoretical one, yet to be corroborated through evidence-based research (PCPFS, 2006).What has been documented through research, however, is that physical activity outside of sport may, in fact, be better suited to promoting empathy among youth, and that moral debate may be de veloped through sport if actively promoted in dialogue with a coach (PCPFS, 2006). For example, Trulson (1986, cited by Coakley & Donnelly, 2004, p. 171) found that the type of sport experience was key to reduction delinquent behaviour in that martial arts taught with a philosophy of respect, patience, responsibility and honour were related to decreased delinquency, while those based on free sparring and self-protection were related to higher evels of delinquency. Research examining moral reasoning, or the ability to think about moral issues, among athletes has actually found that participation in sport is associated with lower levels of moral reasoning maturity however, there is also evidence that coaches or physical educators may successfully promote the development of moral reasoning if they actively seek to do so (PCPFS, 2006).In relation to the third component of character, motivational orientation or the cognitive rationales for behaviour, research suggests that motivation m ay be improved through the type of positive team environment that sport participation can provide for children and youth (PCPFS, 2006).In effect, the potential does exist to effectively promote moral development through sport because the social interactions associated with sport participation may impact certain psychological traits that underlie moral decision-making (Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002). Leadership is also an issue that has been examined in research on children/youth and sport participation. Dobosz & Beatys (1999) analysis found that high-school athletes scored higher on a leadership ability measure than their non-athlete counterparts.They conclude, therefore, that athletics offers youth an opportunity and platform to develop and improve leadership skills and abilities. In conclusion, whereas sport has the possibility to provide an environment for the development of moral character, evidence also supports the idea that sport provides an opportunity to suspend moral obligation o r support unethical behaviour in hunt of winning. Coakley & Donnelly (2004, p. 4) point out that much of the research addressing sport and character over the past 50 years suffers from three problematic assumptions that every kind of organized, competitive sport impacts the moral development of every athlete in the same ways that the character-building experience of sport is unique to the extent that those who do not play are at a disadvantage in developing moral character and that the notion of what constitutes positive moral characteristics is generally accepted. In this sense, Shields & Bredemeier (1995, cited by Ewing et al. 2002) caution that it is not the physicality of sport, or the learning and performance of sporting skills, that is both ethical or unethical or related to character development more accurately, it is that social interactions within the sport experience potentially impact the development of moral character. Research suggests that sport programs among childr en and youth may contribute to social inclusion, both at the community level and in post-conflict areas, as well as in social psychological relations such as peer groups.Criminology literature has found evidence that sport-based programs may make a positive contribution to trim down youth crime as diversionary, rehabilitation and gateway programs. Youth sport participation has been linked to educational benefits if physical education is included as part of broad-based educational programs, although causal links between sport participation and educational achievement are difficult to establish.Evidence suggests that character-building, including moral behaviour, empathy, reasoning and leadership, may be promoted and facilitated through sport, although such processes are highly myrmecophilous on the context of the sporting program and the values promoted therein. From the literature reviewed, it is decipherable that sports participation among children and youth can encourage positi ve social, emotional, educational, community and moral development however, these benefits are not automatic.Sports programs positively impact youth when (a) they are exacted with a person-centred approach that is flexible enough to respond to the needs, motivations and rights of the child/youth, and (b) they change rules, rivalry and winning, and emphasizing choice for participants, effort and positive feedback (Sport England, 2002). This review of research also indicates that the operation and outcomes of sport programs are affected by, and, in turn, affect, a myriad of social factors/forces, and cannot be implemented or evaluated in isolation from these conditions.In terms of positive child and youth development, a multi-faceted approach is needed to target the multiple social conditions that contribute to positive outcomes (Coalter, 2005). In particular, positive attitudes, values and character traits must be actively promoted and taught in any child-/youth-focused sports prog ram. This is most effectively accomplished with the positive, enthusiastic and skillful engagement of a coach, teacher or leader (Seefeldt & Ewing, 2002).Coakleys list of the characteristics of exemplary sport programs for child and youth development indicates that participants should feel physically safe personally valued socially connected morally and economically supported personally and politically empowered and hopeful about the future. Sport programs have a positive impact on children and youth when they are person-centred, as opposed to outcome oriented, and emphasize choice and autonomy over rules and a focus on winning.In general, there is a lack of evidence from which to make strong claims about sports participation and social inclusion for and among children and youth (Bailey, 2005). Although there is an increasing awareness of the potential of sport to aid in the social and educational development of children and youth, there is also consensus that the specific contribut ions of sport (regarding education, socialization and social integration) need to be identified, and that a solid knowledge base can help to create a new political agenda and to ensure its implementation (Doll-Tepper, 2006, p. 1). The future success of sport and child/youth initiatives rely, to an extent, on co-operation between a variety of networks and stakeholders, such as community, sports clubs and schools, and between detectives and practitioners (Doll-Tepper, 2006, p. 71). There is also a need for more research to focus on the specific mechanisms by, and conditions under, which sport can and does make a positive contribution to child and youth development.Similarly, there is a need to better understand issues such as social inclusion and leadership/leadership training. Without careful attention paid to the conditions (social, psychological, material) that frame the lives of children and youth and their sporting experiences, the impact of sport-based interventions in relation to child/youth development are speculative at best. There is significant evidence to support the utility of sport in facilitating and supporting the development of children and youth.Sport participation and sport-based initiatives targeted at children and youth have been shown to decrease social exclusion and contribute to community-building and inclusion in a host of social contexts, such as areas of post-conflict and areas of pauperisation in LMICs. Research also suggests that sport offers an important resource for reducing delinquency and crime among youth and promoting community safety. Sport is also associated with facilitating educational commitment and attainment among children and youth, and as a vehicle for promoting character-building and moral development.The primal conclusion of this literature review, however, is that these positive results of child/youth sport participation and child- and youth-based initiatives are not automatic or linear. Research indicates that s port programs should be part of a multi-agency approach to child and youth development, and that committed facilitators (coaches, administrators, volunteers) are needed to ensure that appropriate values (fair play as opposed to winning) are encouraged through sport programs. References J. Andrews & G.Andrews, Life in a Secure Unit The Rehabilitation of Young People Through the design of Sport, Social Science and Medicine 56(3) (2003)531550. Y. Auweele, C. Malcolm & B. Meulders (eds. ), Sport and Development (Leuven, Belgium Lannoo Campus, 2006). R. Bailey, Evaluating the kindred mingled with bodily nurture, Sport and Social Inclusion, educational freshen 57(1) (2005)7190. R. Bailey, sensual Education and Sport in take aims A Review of Benefits and Outcomes, The Journal of School Health 76(8) (2006)397401. R. Bailey & H.Dismore, Spined The Role of visible Education and Sport in Education (Athens 4th internationalist Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials Responsible f or Physical Education and Sport, 2004). H. Belch, M. Gebel & G. Maas, Relationship Between Student Recreation Complex Use, Academic Performance, and Persistence of First-Time Freshmen, NASPA Journal 38(2) (2001)254268. B. Bredemeier & D. Shields, The Utility of Moral Stage Analysis in the investigating of Athletic Aggression, Sociology of Sport Journal 1 (1984)138149. C.Burnett, Social Impact judging and Sport Development Social Spin-Offs of the Australiasouthward Africa Junior Sport Program, International Review for the Sociology of Sport 36(1) (2001)4157. Commonwealth Advisory Board on Sport (CABOS). CABOS Report. 2006. Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport. Canadian domain Opinion Survey on Youth and Sport. Ottawa 2002. J. Coakley, Using Sport to Control Deviance and Violence Among Youth Lets Be Critical and Cautious. In M. Gatz, M. Messner & S. Ball-Rokeach (eds. ), Paradoxes of Youth and Sport (Albany, NY State University of New York Press, 2002), 1330.J. Coakley & P. Donnell y, Sports in family Issues and Controversies (Toronto McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2004). F. Coalter, The Social Benefits of Sport An Overview to Inform the Community readying Process (Edinburgh SportScotland, 2005). Conference Board of Canada. Strengthening Canada The Socio-economic Benefits of Sport Participation in Canada. Ottawa 2005. R. Dobosz & L. Beaty, The Relationship Between Athletic Participation and High School Students Leadership Ability, Adolescence 34(133) (1999)215220. G. Doll-Tepper, The Potential of Sport for Youth Wellness in an Educational Context. In Y. Auweele, C. Malcolm & B. Meulders (eds. ), Sport and Development (Leuven, Belgium Lannoo Campus, 2006). P. Donnelly, democratization Revisited Seven Theses on the Democratization of Sport and Active Leisure, Loisir et Societe/Society and Leisure 16(2) (1993)413434. P. Donnelly & J. Coakley, The Role of Recreation in Promoting Social Inclusion. Part of Laidlaw Foundation Working Paper Series Perspectives on Social Incl usion. (Toronto 2002). P. Donnelly & J. Coakley, Recreation and Youth Development What We Know. In B. Kidd & J. Phillips (eds. , From Enforcement and Prevention to polite usage Research on Community Safety (Toronto Centre for Criminology, University of Toronto, 2004), 156167. Douglas Brown Consulting. Report on the Social and Cultural Benefits of Sport in Calgary. Calgary 2005. D. Eley & D. Kirk, growth Citizenship Through Sport The Impact of a Sport-based Volunteer Programme on Young Sport Leaders, Sport, Education and Society 7(2) (2002)151166. I. Endresen & D. Olweus, Participation in cater Sports and Antisocial Involvement in Preadolescent and Adolescent Boys, Journal of Child psychological science and Psychiatry 46(5) (2005)468478.M. Ewing, L. Gano-Overway, C. Branta & V. Seefeldt, The Role of Sports in Youth Development. In M. Gatz, M. Messner & S. Ball-Rokeach (eds. ), Paradoxes of Youth and Sport (Albany State University of New York Press, 2002), 3147). P. K. Gasser & A. Levinsen, Breaking Post-war methamphetamine Open Fun Football Schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sport in Society 7(3) (2004)457472. S. L. Gibbons, V. Ebbeck & M. R. Weiss, Fair Play for Kids Effects on the Moral Development of Children in Physical Education, Research Quarterly for work on and Sport 66 (1995)247255.R. Giulianotti, Sport and Social Development in Africa Some Major military personnel Rights Issues, The First International Conference on Sports and Human Rights. Sydney, Australia 1999). R. Giulianotti, Human Rights, Globalization and soupy Education, Sport in Society 7(3) (2004)355369. D. Hansen, R. Larson & J. Dworkin, What Adolescents Learn in Organized Youth Activities A survey of Self-reported Developmental Experiences, Journal of Research on Adolescence 13(1) (2003)2555. D. Hartmann & B.Depro, Rethinking Sports-Based Community horror Prevention A Preliminary Analysis of the Relationship Between Midnight Basketball and Urban Crime Rates, Journal of Sport and Social Issues 30(2) (2006)180196. R. Hedstrom & D. Gould, Research in Youth Sports Critical Issues Status (East capital of Michigan Institute for the Study of Youth Sports, Michigan State University, 2004). Human Development Report 2006, Beyond Scarcity Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. http//www. hdr. undp. org/hdr2006 M. Keim, Nation-Building at Play Sport as a Tool for Social integration in Post-Apartheid South Africa (Oxford Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2003).M. Keim, Sport as Opportunity for Community Development and Peace Building in South Africa, Sport and Development (2006). T. Martinek & D. Hellison, raising Resiliency in Underserved Youth Through Physical Activity, Quest 49(1) (1997)3449. L. Morris, J. Sallybanks & K. Willis, Sport, Physical Activity and Antisocial Behaviour in Youth (Canberra Australian Institute of Criminology, 2003). L. Morris, J. Sallybanks, K. Willis & T. Makkai, Sport, Physical Activity and Antisocial Behaviour in Youth (Canberra Australian Instit ute of Criminology, 2003). National Youth Council. http//www. nyc. gov. sg/YRN/youthdefinition. sp. G. Nichols & I. Crow, Measuring the Impact of Crime Reduction Interventions Involving Sports Activities for Young People, The Howard Journal 43(3) (2004)267283. P. OCallaghan, D. Reitman, J. Northup, S. Hupp & M. Murphy, Promoting Social Skills Generalization with ADHD-Diagnosed Children in a Sports Setting, Behavior Therapy 34 (2003)313330. V. Papacharisis, M. Goudas, S. Danish & Y. Theodorakis, The Effectiveness of Teaching a Life Skills Program in a Sports Context, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 17 (2005)247254. R. Pitter, Midnight Basketball Avoiding the Hazards of Assimilative Reform. In B. Kidd & J. Phillips (eds. ), From Enforcement and Prevention to Civic Engagement Research on Community Safety (Toronto Centre for Criminology, University of Toronto, 2004), 170181. PCPFS. Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sport. Sports and Character Development, Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Washington, DC 2006. R. D. Putnam, Bowling Alone The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York Simon and Schuster, 2000). P. Richards, soccer and Violence in War-Torn Africa Soccer and Social Rehabilitation in Sierra Leone. In G. Armstrong & R. Giulianotti (eds. , Entering the Field New Perspectives in earthly concern Football (Oxford Berg, 1997). J. Sallis & N. Owen, Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine (Thousand Oaks, CA Sage, 1999). V. Seefeldt & M. Ewing, Youth Sports in America An Overview, Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sport Research Digest 2(11) (2002). D. L. L Shields & B. J. L Bredemeier, Character Development and Physical Activity. (Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics, 1995). A. Smith, Peer Relationships in Physical Activity Contexts A Road Less Traveled in Youth Sport and Exercise Psychology Research, Psychology of Sport and Exercise 4 (2003)2539.A. Smith & I. Waddington, Using Sport in the Community Schemes to Ta ckle Crime and drug Use Among Young People Some Policy Issues and Problems, European Physical Education Review 10 (2004)279298. Sport England, Positive Futures A Review of Impact and Good Practice (London Sport England, 2002). J. Sugden, Teaching and Playing Sport for Conflict Resolution and Co-existence in Israel, International Review for the Sociology of Sport 41(2) (2006)221240. J. R. Thomas et al. , Exercise and Cognitive Function. In C. Bouchard et al. (eds. , Physical Activity Fitness and Health International Proceedings and Consensus Statement (Champagne, Illinois Human Kinetics, 1994). M. Trulson, Martial Arts educational activity A Novel Cure for Juvenile Delinquency, Human Relations 39(12) (1986)11311140. UNESCO Charter of Physical Education and Sport (Paris UNESCO, 1978). http//www. unesco. org/education/nfsunesco/pdf/SPORT_E. PDF. (retrieved September 7, 2007) United Nations, Youth at the United Nations. http//www. un. org/esa/socdev/unyin/qanda. htm United Nations De velopment Program. Forging a Global South UN Day for South-SouthCooperation. New York 19 December, 2004. F.Van Eekeren, Sport and Development Challenges in a New Arena. In Y. Auweele, C. Malcolm & B. Meulders (eds. ), Sport and Development (Leuven, Belgium Lannoo Campus, 2006). M. R. Weiss & C. P. Stuntz, A critical Friendly Competition Peer Relationships and Psychosocial Development in Youth Sports and Physical Activity Contexts. In M. R. Weiss (ed. ), Developmental Sport and Exercise Psychology A Lifespan Perspective (Morgantown, WV Fitness Information Technology Inc. , 2004), 165196. O. Willis, Sport and Development The Significance of Mathare Youth Sports Association Canadian Journal of Development Studies 21(3) (2000)825849.World Bank, Data and Statistics Country Classification. http//web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMD20420458menuPK64133156pagePK64133150piPK64133175theSitePK239419,00. html Chapter Three 3. 0Research methodological analysis This c hapter deals with how data was collected systematically so as to obtain useful information on the relevance of sport in youth development. The tec is cognisant that this can be done in various ways and have given considerations to different approaches before settling for the ones which seems more worthy in finding answer to the research question.Both quantitative and qualitative instruments which were deemed more appropriate were used to enable the research worker gather necessary information about the relevance of sports to youth development. Below are methods that were considered 3. 1RESEARCH material body A research setting is seen as a framework for group the relevant data for a study. Thus Bryman and Bell (2007) suggests that a research design is a systematic technique or procedure for solving a specified research problem. Therefore the research design take for this study was a survey. This enabled the researcher to look into the research topic under study. . 2SOURCES OF DATA In order to carry out this research effectively, data were gathered from two major sources. They include primary and secondary data. 3. 2. 1 Primary Data The primary method of gathering data is also considered as survey method. According to Bryman and Bell (2007 56) a survey research comprises a cross sectional design in relation to which data are collected predominantly by questionnaire or by coordinate interview in other to collect a body of data in connection with two or more variables. The purpose is to gather extensive and authoritative information about a study.Thus the researcher considered this technique best suitable for the study because unlike the secondary or historical data, the survey approach draws data from the present. As suggested by Jankowicz (2005), the survey method is used to determine the views of a sample based on what they feel, value and believe. Therefore it is obvious that this study intends to seek the perceptions of teachers, students, parents, s ports men and women. Furthermore this method is used when the same question is used to seek the views and opinions of a relatively large sample size.Thus the tools used in the survey were structured questionnaire and interview. 3. 2. 2Questionnaire Questionnaires can take many forms depending on what is being measured. shrewd questionnaires can be problematic because they involve a creative process of writing and a design process for devising a structure which is rational in terms of its objectives and intended subject. However Riley et al (2005) posits that the questionnaire has an advantage of collecting information on facts and opinions from a large number of people.Thus to carry out this research, the researcher administered questionnaires to teachers, students, parents, sportsmen and women. The questionnaire comprised of direct questions to teachers and coaches over the relevance of sport to youth development. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen structured questions with fi ve options each to a question in a simple dichotomy of strongly agree, moderately agree, strongly disagree, disagree and undecided. A cover letter accompanied the questionnaire. It explained the purpose of the research, the aim of the questionnaire and the procedure for completing the questionnaire.The questionnaires were sent to the sample size by hand. The absolute questionnaires were returned to the researcher on scheduled date of sight. 3. 2. 3Interview The researcher also conducted an interview with 4 sports adminstrators to gather data. The aim was to obtain relevant information from the perspective of those responsible for the adoption and implementation of Youth policies and sports in general about the relevance of sports to youth development. The interview was conducted through word to mouth intercourse spending approximately 15 to 20 miniutes of the interviews 3. 0 unoriginal DataThis involves a systematic collection of data relating to past occurrences. It is very use ful in vestige the development of an issue from existing archival records. Though Jankowicz (2005) stated that this method is commonly utilised in business and management research, it was not the best suitable for this study. However this method was employed in chapter two in examining past scholarly work relating to incentives pay and commitment and performance. By this the researcher gathered information from already written works both published and unpublished that had relevance to the topic under study.They include text books, journals, articles and past research work form students. All these were consulted from institutional libraries and internet in London 4. 3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY It is the target of the study for collection of data. Olakunori (2000) opined that population is the entire number of people, objects, events and things that all have one or more characteristics of interest to a study. Similarly Castillo (2009) suggests that a research population is a well defi ned collection of individuals or objects known to have similar characteristics.It can also be referred to as the group where inferences are made. Thus for this study, the population consisted of teachers, students, coaches, sports men and women, These were drawn from three school in FCT, Abuja, Sports ministry, Medical Sports Department of the Sports Commission of Nigeria. However due to the large size of the school population, the researcher could not test every student and teachers, population because doing so will be time consuming and expensive. Therefore the target population was 130 4. 4 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE Castillo (2009) explains that a sample is a subset of the population.It is imperative to mention that samples are used in a study that involves a large population. The reasons for using samples include the rely of the researcher to adequately manipulate the enormous population so as to avoid errors in calculating large numbers, and the desire to reduce the damage of producing the copies of questionnaire that would cover the entire population. Furthermore the aim was to allow the researcher to conduct the study to individuals from the population so that the results of the study can be used to draw conclusion that will apply to the entire population.Thus for the purpose of achieving success in this study, the researcher in order to make an effective prediction of the population tried to find an optimal sample from which copies of questionnaire would be distributed. This was necessary since it was not executable to get the opinion of the entire population. overly an optimal sample size would make valid prediction of the population, belittle the cost and time of reaching the entire population. Barrow (1996) enumerates three ways of determining a sample size and they include a. Conducting a small preliminary pilot survey b. Guessing . Using the results of existing surveys if available In light of the above the researcher adopted the first app roach and conducted a pilot survey. The preliminary survey was carried out at Goverment Secondary Schools at Garki, and Wuse bothin Abuja, to know the reaction of the respondents to the questions and subsequently arrive at a sample size. As a result 130 copies of questionnaire were distributed to the respondents and 100 copies were right on completed and returned, while 30 were not returned. This represented 90 percent success rate and 20 percent failure rate respectively.Based on the result of the pilot survey, the sample was calculated using Freud and Williams (1970) model. The decree is stated thus n= Z2 Pq e2 where n= sample size Z= Critical value corresponding to the chosen level of significance= 1. 96 (given) P= office of Success =80% or 0. 8 q= percentage of failure=20% or 0. 1 e=tolerance margin of error=5% or 0. 05 Also based on the result of the pilot survey, the researcher assumed a 95 percent arcdegree of confidence and 5 percent margin of error. Thus substituting t he above formulae we obtain, n= (1. 98)2 (0. 80) (0. 20) (0. 05)2 = 0. 614656 0. 0025 = 245. 8624= 246 Thus the sample size was 246 however the researcher administered 240 copies of questionnaires to the respondents. 4. 5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS It should be recalled that this study dealt with The Impact of Incentives recompense on Employee commitment and performance A case study of union Bank Nigeria Plc. To ensure that the research work is understandable, the researcher made the change the analysis of data collected. To this end, all data collected were through the administered questionnaires and interview was presented and analysed using tables, charts and simple percentages. . 6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY A research of this nature cannot be successfully completed without some limitations or constraints. A major limitation to the research was the unfriendly attitude of some of the respondents of conjunction bank concerning the completion of the questionnaire administered to them . Some of the respondents revealed discreetly to the researcher that supplying any information to an outsider would cause problems for the organisation, not withstanding the efforts made by the researcher in explaining to them that the research was purely for academic purpose.APPENDIX 3 preserve LETTER FOR QUESTIONNAIRE Ugba Vivien Anna C/o Business School University of Hertfordshire Hatfield United estate The impact of incentives Pay on Employee Commitment and Performance Dear Respondents, I am studying for a masters degree in Human Resource Management and Employment Relations and as part of the need for the award of the degree, am carrying out a research work on the above topic. I would appreciate if you can some time out of your tight schedule to complete this questionnaire by providing answers to the listed questions.I promise that information provided will be used for research work only and will also be treated in high confidentiality. Thanks for your anticipate cooperation Yours Sincerely Ugba Vivien Anna APPENDIX 4 QUESTIONNAIRE Procedure for completing the questionnaire Please I would like you to complete the questionnaire by providing answers to the questions below. Please tick the most appropriate answer/options to each of the questions using the options given which describe the extent to which you either agree or disagree with the question. SexMale Female period 20-30 31-40 41-50 51 above SECTION A EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT OPINION thought Adapted from Porter and Smith (1970) Organisational commitment Questionnaire S/N Questions strongly Agree Moderately Agree Undecided resist Strongly Disagree 1 I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help this nerve be successful 2 I talk up this brass to my friends as a great makeup to work for 3 I feel very little dedication to this governance. I would accept almost any type of job fitting in order to keep working for this organization 5 I find that my values and the organizations values are very similar 6 I am proud to tell others that I am part of this organization 7 I could just as well be working for a different organization as long as the type of work were similar 8 This organization really inspires the very best in me in the way of job performance 9 It would take very little change in my present circumstances to cause me to leave this organization. 0 I am extremely glad that I chose this organization to work for, over others I was considering at the time I joined 11 Theres not too much to be gained by sticking with this organization indefinitely 12 Often, I find it difficult to agree with this organizations policies on important matters relating to its employees 13 I really care about the fate of this organization 14 For me this is the best of all possible organizations for which to work. 15 Deciding to work for this organization was a definite sneak on my part

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