Sunday, March 31, 2019

Benefits Of Ict In Smes Information Technology Essay

Benefits Of Ict In Smes Information engineering science Essay incomingResearch indicates that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers promising opportunities for organizations to meet the challenges of an ever-ever-ever-changing milieu (Kapurubandara and Lawson, 2006). ICTs ar recognise as key slits in focus servees, having a remarkable cap magnate to typify to sustained competitive emolument for assembly line sectores (Ion and Andreea, 2008). In Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs), ICT bathroom be apply as a handicraft tool to reduce costs, stimulate stronger connect with customers, innovate and facilitate food marketplace niche (Kutlu and Ozturan, 2009). Although at that place argon difficulties associated with the exercise ICT in SMEs, however this discountvas highlights the social welf ars associated with the usage of ICT a Nigerian SMEs and identifies more(prenominal) or less problems veneering the Nigerian SME sector.Signifi qu arterce of SMEsThe importance of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) stooge non be all overlooked in the frugal ontogeny of whatever agricultural since SMEs play a critical role in every countrys economical culture and Nigeria is no exception. SMEs mystify been fully recognized both in resurrected and developing countries as the main engine of economic doingation and a major doer in promoting private sector phylogeny and partnership (Okongwu, 2001). SMEs atomic number 18 often seen as rattling for the ontogeny and knowledgeability of dynamic economies as they create employment (Mutula and Brakel, 2006). They are flexible and give the axe adapt quickly to changing market demands as supply situations help diversify economic activity that has significant contribution to imports and exports (Ongori, 2009). Thus, SMEs contribute more and more to the national and international economies of the terra firma. correspond to Wattanapruttipaisan (2003), the significan ce of SMEs for growth, productivity and combat of the economies in both developed and developing countries is universally recognized since SMEs contribute to meliorated living standards, bring roughly substantial local chapiter formation and come through high level of productivity and capability. They are recognized as the principal subject matter of achieving equitable and sustainable industrial diversification and dispersal.The contributions of SMEs to the Nigerian miserliness are not contestable as most 10% of the total manufacturing end product and 70% of the industrial employment are by SMEs. SMEs alike promote industrial and economic ripening by dint of the utilization of local imaginations, production of intermediate goods and the transformation of rural applied science (Aina, 2007). Nigerian SMEs do not only appropriate employment and income for majority of its citizens but too, SMEs are acknowledged as the breeding ground for municipal entrepreneurial capa bilities, technical skills, technological innovativeness and managerial competencies for the private sector development (SMEDAN, 2005, Aina, 2007).The benefits of SMEs to any economy are easily noticeable as SMEs are known to contribute to the development of some(prenominal) economies in terms of output of goods and run, creation of jobs at relatively small capital cost, especially in the fast growing service sector and they provide a vehicle for the reduction of income disparities thus developing a pool of skilled or semi-skilled workers as a basis for the rising industrial expansion (Aina, 2007). SMEs withal correct forward and backward linkages between economically, socially and geographically diverse sectors of numerous economies and provide opportunities for development (SMEDAN, 2005). Therefore, the development of SMEs is an essential element in the growth strategy of most economies and holds particular significance for Nigeria.SMEs have been delimitate by SMEDAN asS ize CategoryEmploymentAssets (N million) excluding land and structure1Micro EnterprisesLess than 10Less than 52Small enterprises10-495- less than 503Medium enterprises50-19950- less than viosterol(SMEDAN, 2005)In Nigeria, SMEs cover the entire range of economic activity at heart all sectors and donation a number of common problems. These problems as set by the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) and other similar studies include low market introduction to credit, poor information flow, prejudiced legislation, poor advance to land, weak linkages among different sectors, weak operating capabilities in terms of skills, privation of knowledge and attitudes, lack of infrastructural facilities among others.Information and Communication Technology (ICT)Information and Communication Technology (ICT) refers to a wide range of computerized technologies. ICT is any technology that enables dialogue and the electronic capturing, bear upon and transmiss ion of information. These technologies include products and serve such as desktop computers, laptops, handheld devices, wired or radio set intranet, rail line productivity software such as text editor and spreadsheet, enterprise software, data storage and security, network security and so on (Ashrafi and Murtaza, 2008). In Nigeria, commonly ingestiond ICTs include Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), machine-controlled Teller Machines (ATMs), mobile ph bingles, and smart cards.The Role of ICT in SMEsIn the march knowledge- base economy, it is important for SMEs to adopt processes that would enable them provide services that would bring intimately competitive return. ICT has a significant positive encroachment on organisational performance (Maldeni and Jayasena, 2009). ICT is crucial to SMEs as it is a major catalyst and enabler of organisational swap (Hazbo et al, 2008). Modern vexationes are not possible without the wont of ICT which is having a significant impact on the operations of SMEs and it is claimed to be essential for the choice and growth of economies in widely distributed (Berisha-Namanil, 2009). ICTs provide opportunities for business transformations (Chibelushi, 2008). It also provides SMEs the hazard to conduct business anywhere (Jennex et al, 2004). It is commonly accepted that ICT provides numerous potential benefits to organizations so as to make them more efficient, effective and competitive (Fink and Disterer, 2006). ICT increases grandness and reach (Evans and Wurster, 1997). This refers to the personal manner companies communicate, collaborate, conduct dealingss internecinely with their customers, suppliers and distributors via the internet and the ability for local SMEs to participate in the digital economy (Golding, et al, 2008). According to Erumban and de Jong (2006), ICT has created a revolution by qualification the world seemingly wasteder and change potential economic growth. Pavic et al (2007) argue that SMEs have the opportunity to achieve a competitive advantage from the advances in ICT through innovation, marketing, aptitude gains, ameliorate quality and customer responsiveness. Also, Levy et al (2002) put some turn up which shows that SMEs act proactively in relation to the practise of ICT.The European Commission (2008) separate that SMEs could intent ICT in order to grow and to become more innovative. The use of ICT in SMEs should be encouraged as it can help to improve technical and managerial skills, making available e-business solutions for SMEs and addressing the high cost of self-command of ICT equipment. Also, Love et al (2004) ascertains that the use of ICT provides many benefits to SMEs at different levels (operational level, tactical level and strategic level).In addition, Ongori (2009) states that the use of ICT would help change the way businesses operate in this era of globalization by changing business structures and increasing competition, creating competitive advantage for businesses and by changing business operations. Therefore, SMEs moldiness have an ability to compete and dynamically respond to rapidly changing markets as it plays a significant role in an organizations growth and success. According to Kapurubandara and Lawson (2006), for survival in a competitive global economy and staying abreast, it is manifest that SMEs embrace ICT as it is becoming imperative for SMEs to gain competitive advantage and for stability in international markets. This implies that thither are several(prenominal) benefits associated with the use of ICT.Benefits of ICT in SMEsThe benefit of ICT cuts across all sectors of the economy and all the palm of human activities (Udo and Edoho, 2000). ICT can improve the standard of living and enhance business operations as well as organizational efficiency (Udo and Edoho, 2000). stamp down use of ICT can assist SMEs to gain competitive advantage by reducing costs and improving core business processes. Accordi ng to Brynjolfsson and Hitt (2000), the use of ICT can help to cut down the costs of coordination, communication, information processing and also enable efficient service pro great deal at start cost. ICT is a strategic tool that enables users to be efficient and effective (Sewanyana, 2009). The globe exposure of ICT in many countries by different sectors of the economy have been found to have direct positive impact on the organizations efficiency and have led to more rapid acceleration of development in these countries (Achimugu et al, 2009). In Nigeria, preliminary investigations show that only few SMEs presently use ICT. However, there has not been a formal study to ascertain the impact of ICT in these organizations.According to Fullanteli and Allegra (2003), ICT offer enterprises a wide range of possibilities for improving their competitiveness. They provide mechanisms for getting access to new market opportunities and specialized information services such as distance consult ing, continuous training, new advisory modes, and so on. Organizations can exchange real-time information and build closer relationships with their customers, suppliers and business partners customer can receive immediate feedback that allows companies to react fast to changing customer demands and recognising new market niches. This means that organizations that are able to exploit the potentials offered by ICT can handle innovative processes such as proviso Chain focusing (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Knowledge Management (KM) more effectively (Fullanteli and Allegra, 2003).Since, ICT has been described as critical to the competitiveness and growth of SMEs (Apulu and Latham, 2009), it is important for it to be applied in the relevant manner in order to reap the far-reaching payoffs of ICT. Shiels et al (2003) state that technology would not pebibyte to business growth except it is aligned with a business strategy. This means that having the pay off technolo gy in the right place and at the right time would assist to improve business performance and also forethought competitiveness and sustainability (Swift, 2009). Once ICT is integrated into a business process, it becomes a utilitarian tool in many stages of the value chain (Swift, 2009).The use of ICT in SMEs helps to improve communication ability to exchange data, teamwork, customer relations services, market share and so on. It allows companies to obtain, process, accumulate and exchange information (Ion and Andreea, 2008). Another benefit of using ICT in SMEs is the fact that high efficiency is obtained in business performances due to a fast and accurate processing of information (Ion and Andreea, 2008). Lal (2005) further states that web-enabled services increase the competitiveness of SMEs because they change the relationship with customers by creating a stronger link between firms and clients. The use of ICT in SMEs facilitates cooperation within the conjunction, between the company and other firms.Similarly, Swift (2009) states that SMEs benefit from the use of ICT as it increases productivity, efficiency of internal business and operation and connects SMEs more easily and cheaply to foreign contact. Other benefits include increasing business competitiveness vertical desegregation with other link up initiatives, meeting stakeholders of various institutions networking with other parties creating of an enabling environment and the development of an internal competence in capturing market opportunities (Swift, 2009). Hence, the investment in ICT will result in increasing SMEs rates of sales and share of market, improve their Return on Investments (ROI), reduce cost and assist them to develop new products and/or markets.Chowdhury and Wolf (2003) argue that SMEs use ICTs both as input in the production process and in the transaction process selling their products or acquiring inputs. ICT enhances enterprise performance through confirmatory cost savings such as lying-in costs, increased labour productivity and direct cost reduction of firms input (Chowdhury and Wolf, 2003 Love et al, 2006). On top of these short-run impacts of ICT in the production process, the use of ICTs in the transaction process can foster input and output market expansion. However, in the long run ICT may have a bigger impact as it can completely restructure the production process and transaction methods and also increase flexibility and improve outputs (Chowdhury and Wolf, 2003). In order words, it can be concluded that ICTs can influence the performance of an enterprise in multifaceted ways.In addition, ICT has been widely perceived as major tools for kick-starting hurt economies and consequently in assisting developing societies to catch up with the developed world. ICT can assist groups that have lost out of the mainstream of development (Obijiofor et al, 2005). ICTs have important potentials for developing SMEs through more effective use and better de segregation in their business processes. This will bring active a change among SMEs and make them more competitive, innovative and also generate growth (Obijiofor et al, 2005).Nevertheless, several factors lug SMEs from fully realizing these benefits. According to Liedholm (2002) Ducombe and Molla, (2009), SMEs especially in Africa suffer from many constraints related to an unfriendly policy and regulatory environment, lack of finance, lack of skills, access to markets and market information, lack of foundation among others and Nigerian SMEs is no exception.Problems of SMEs in Nigeriaseveral(prenominal) problems are militating against the development of SMEs in Nigeria. As a developing economy, one of the most worrying among these constraints is the issue of funding (Aina, 2007). This is because most banks are aghast(predicate) of funding SMEs for the reason that they want to minimize their risk profile. Also, the Nigerian economic situation is not very seductive to investors (Aina, 2007). This forms a major constraint to SMEs growth in the country.In Nigeria, there is the problem of inadequate and inefficient infrastructural facilities, which tend to escalate costs of operation as SMEs are constrained to resort to private provisioning of utilities such as water supply, electricity, and so on (Udechukwu, 2003). Other problems include lack of adequate credit for SMEs traceable to the waver of banks to extend credit as well as inadequate validatory by SME operators, weak demand for products arising from low and declining consumer purchasing power and lack of patronage of locally produced goods by those in authority (Onugu, 2005). All these problems hinder the effective use of ICT in Nigerian SMEs.Electricity constraint is a major factor that affects the use of ICT in Nigerian SMEs. In many rural areas, there are no electricity supplies while in the towns and cities where there is electricity, its presence is limited. Electricity generation and distribut ion therefore negatively affect the diffusion levels of ICT in the country (Akpan-Obong, 2007). Nigerian population lacks access to electricity. Therefore unless power supply is stabilized, as well as expand to the rural areas, electricity is likely to remain a key factor hindering the development of SMEs in Nigeria.There is also the problem of numerousness of regulatory agencies and taxes which has always resulted in high cost of doing business, poor forethought practices and low entrepreneurial skill arising from inadequate educational and technical telescope of many SME owners (Udechukwu, 2003).Similarly, developmental policies weigh in favour of large firms and sometimes foreign owned firms leaving SMEs in a distressed and defenceless position. Corruption, lack of transparency, very high bureaucratic costs and lack of giving medication interest in supporting the roles of SMEs in national economic development and competitiveness. The most worrying of all among these challeng es is funding. Most SMEs enterprises are not attractive prospects for banks as they want to minimize their risk profile. Also, In Nigeria, provision of public infrastructure is grossly inadequate and poor (Posu, 2006). Necessary telecommunication services, as public infrastructure, needed for meaningful investment are very valuable and inadequate.Research MethodCase studies are the most common qualitative method used in information strategys question (Cassell and Symon, 2004 Burns, 2000 Yin, 1993 Orlikowski and Baroudi, 1991). Sauer (1993) is of the opinion that look into in information systems is best done by case study. A case study research is useful when a phenomenon and context are not clearly evident (Yin, 2003). It also allows us to study a phenomenon within its natural context (Yin, 2009). Therefore given the exploratory record of this study, the qualitative case study approach is adopted. According to Yin (1994), case study methodology offers a means of testing existin g theories while providing a probable analytic generalization.This study is found on primary research from interviews and junior-grade research including internal documents and academic sources. The case study was selected based on the size of the company, in accordance with the definition of SMEs in Nigeria and also based upon the post-ICT experience in the company. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather expand of the SME. Questions related to the business aspects of the company, drivers for ICT adoption, barriers to ICT adoption, use of ICT, ICT infrastructure, competition and benefits of ICT were asked at some point in the interview. In terms of the analysis of the interviews, notes were compiled during each interview which gave an accurate disapproval of the information gathered. In addition, some company documents were reviewed. Furthermore, extensive amount of secondary data was collected and reviewed from various sources which included books and academic journals. A general introduction to the organization involved is provided below, followed by a discussion on the benefits of ICT within the organization. The company in this paper has been given pseudonyms and some details of the company have been shrouded to maintain company confidentiality.Case StudyMACO is a small manufacturing company located in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria and was established in 2003. Presently, the company has fourty employees all of which are full time workers. The companys goal is to satisfy its present and future customers by developing level of services superior to those of its competitors. MACOs vision is to satisfy customer needs by providing promt and efficient services and to create a secured and viable engineering solution to its customers. In 2005, the company resolute to implement an ICT system called ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) due to the competitive nature of the market and the need to stand out from the crowd. Another reason behind the companys termina tion to use the new system was as a result of the challenges MACO was facing with its customers in terms of tendering and purchase processes and in the production capacity planning. The ERP system helps in the companys production capacity planning and control, so that the scheduling and resource allocation for different projects can be planned ahead sooner the project begins. The ERP system has given MECO a huge opportunity. The company can now easily target new customers, survive and grow in this competitive climate and also build long term relationships with its customers. interventionSMEs have been recognized for playing very important roles towards the economic growth, development and stability of several economies. SMEs play a indispensable role in employment generation and immensely contribute to the Gross Domestic Products (GDPs) of several countries (OECD, 2000). With reference to the case study presented above, it can be said that there are several benefits associated wit h the use of ICT. ICT offers SMEs a competitive edge over its competitors (for example increase in production capacity planning and control) hence, it is vital for Nigerian SMEs to use ICT. It should be regarded as a critical tool for SMEs competitiveness.establish on the literature review, some major factors that affect Nigerian SMEs are lack of infrastructural facilities and lack of electricity. Furthermore, lack of resources is another major factor. Hence, the Nigerian government should set up different agencies to look into the various problems associated with SMEs in Nigeria. The government can provide an enabling environment in which ICT can realize its full potential. They can help to address the problems and challenges of awareness and infrastructure under- development (Payne, 2001).Nowadays several organizations have moved from manual paper-based to ICTs for internal processing of information, and from telephony to ICTs for external communication. Thus access to ICT has pro vided people with a foundation for building up and applying knowledge globally and particularly in developing nations (Ani et al, 2007). Through the use of ICT, modern society has been described as an information age and the knowledge economy.In the present knowledge based economy, the use of ICT can to bring the like competitive advantage to small and medium sized enterprises as brought to large enterprises. ICTs are also making it possible for developing countries to participate in the world economy in ways that simply were not possible in the past. Hence, information and communication technologies should be regarded as a strategic tool in SMEs. The use of ICTs in SMEs should therefore, be considered as part of the wider informal to formal pitch contour process for information systems.There is need for SMEs to undertake continuous overture of their existing processes, products and services. They need to introduce products and services with extended capabilities to create more v alue for their customers (Hanif and Sajjad, 2009). On one hand, ICT provides all enterprises with a lot of opportunities for their business activities. On the other hand, SMEs have always been considered to be the major economic players and strong sources of economic growth. Therefore, it is apparent that the use of ICT in SMEs is critical in every economy including Nigeria.As a result of Nigerian SMEs not being fully ICT-enabled they are unable to keep up with the curtilage of globalization. Thus they are deprived of ways by which ICTs can improve it their business processes. ICTs have the potential to improve SMEs business processes as it brings about better insights. Hence, the government needs to address these issues to encourage ICT enabled SMEs.Nigeria can as well leapfrog from its present status ofunder development to a fully developed global giant, as it cannot afford to stand alone (Elebeke, 2009). Todays business world has been deeply influenced by ICT and its applicatio n among business is widespread. ICT are rapidly changing global production, work and business methods and trade and usage patterns in and between enterprises and consumers (Alam and Noor, 2009). Also, SMEs are often seen as a vital source of growth and innovation in a dynamic economy and consequently small businesses help to diversify the economy and at the same time create employment (Machacha, 2002, Banda et al, 2004). Therefore, the ability for SMEs to survive in an more and more competitive global environment is largely dependent upon their capacity to leverage technologies.Conclusion and RecommendationsThe use of ICT can provide a platform for future growth of SMEs however the use of ICT in Nigerian SMEs is relatively low due to many factors militating against their growth. For Nigerian SMEs to effectively use ICT, technological infrastrucures should be put in place by the government to support ICT use. Based on the literature review and case study, it is certain that there a re several benefits associated with the use of ICT. Hence, effective use of ICT in Nigeria SMEs would bring about enormous opportunities for these SMEs. Therefore, for an SME to set itself apart from its competitors and also have a sustainable competitive advantage there is a need to invest in ICT. There is also a need for the government to intensify the efforts of promoting the use of ICT in Nigerian SMEs since ICT is known to improve managerial practices in SMEs and also assist SMEs to grow and become more innovative. Finally, the Nigerian government mustiness invest largely in the SME sector by making more funds available to SMEs and putting structures in place to ensure a successful investment. The integration of ICT in Nigerian SMEs would help integrate these SMEs into the world IT village.

Lack Of Products Differentiation Or Narrow Product Line Marketing Essay

miss Of crossings Differentiation Or Narrow Product Line Marketing raiseThis senior paper report examines the Harley-Davidson (H-D) phenomenon. From near bankruptcy to double-digit growth each year, H-D has something working for them. That something is c tout ensembleed strategicalal endning and development. With the growing global economy, companies be looking for slip port to improve their food merchandise place sh be. Many resplendent firms require learned how to measurement their rivalrys with then implementation of advanced management, m machination placeing, and/or manufacturing techniques (Hitt, Ireland Hoskisson). H-D is whizz of those excellent companies whom exhaust challenged traditional ideas. This report exit identify those strategies that have worked and brought the social union and its make doholders success each year.Today, Harley-Davidson Inc., an employer of 8,100 workers, consists of H-D Motor Company hatefuld in Milwaukee and Eaglemark f inancial Services Inc. based in Chicago, Illinois. These atomic number 18 strategic stock units are they are managed separately based on the fundamental differences in their operations, crossings and services. In addition, there are nearly 1,500 dealerships worldwide. Harleys commitment toward continuous improvement is exemplified in their financial statements.II. Vision, Mission of Harley DavidsonH-D has realized since the 80s an impressive tradeing schema was grown H-D a brand name that much recognized than any opposite lodge. Indeed, the strategy was non to focus on reducing the costs, or on the distri entirelyion improvement, but the main element was to create customer value. In otherwise words, H-Ds will was to give to a greater extent credibility, trust, safety, desires, quality of growth and service, and hence fidelity to its brand. In order to reach that goal, H-D centralized its food marketing on these topics, for example creating a Harley Owners Group who ral lies more than 900,000 members worldwide (www.harley-davidson.com). The main disport of this group is to ensure members to know each other, and become a second base family who share the very(prenominal) interests, wills, and thoughts. This strategy in like manner ensures H-D to maintain a wholesome kind with its customers, and thus a arduous brand name all over the world. match to customers, the owners of H-D say that this brand understands them and their needs, and also that they are invariably there if a problem appears. These remarks tin be linked with H-Ds set. According to H-D Our values are the heart of how we run our business. They guide our actions and serve as the framework for the conclusions and contributions our employees attain at every Respect the Individual, and Encourage capable Curiosity (www.harleydavidson.com).This strategy tush also be linked with the deputation statement of H-DWe fulfill dreams through the experience of forcecycling by providin g to drivecyclists and to the oecumenical public an amplifying gentle wind of bikes and branded returns and services in selected market segments (www.harleydavidson.com).In order to be successful, organizations must determine top out financial and strategic objectives. (Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson) H-D focused on gaining a greater market share, achieving blueer harvest- sequence quality than rivals, maintaining a stronger reputation and a better branding strategy than its competitors, increasing levels of customer satisfaction and finally attaining stronger customer faithfulness.In the 60s and 70s Harleys strategic intent was based on red ink shoulder-to-shoulder against the predominantly Japanese companies. Harley could not vie on the price level, and the Japanese products were of superior quality, Harley discrete to compete in other areas. Their sweet strategy was to connect with passel on an emotional level. They are not sell a product but a way of life, a way of thi nking. Harley changed its strategy from selling products to selling community (Mitchell). And the fact that H-D has developed a Brand stretchiness strategy can also be an element of Harleys success in developing relationships with customers. Indeed, owners can corrupt other Harleys products than racks it means that they can be more than a biker, they can join Harleys group stealing flog accessories or c stilthes, and even cosmetics.III. manufacture/External abbreviationPorters Five Forces AnalysisThreat of New Entry showtimeRequiring high capital enthronization to set down the business because of the scale economies in yield, enquiry, marketing and service of this constancy is high.Brand Identification of Harley Davidson has been strongly established for years. The advancedbies will face a big barrier to overcome customer loyalty of Harley.Harley has developed its moderate distribution contrasts via licensed private dealer and distributor. The unseasoned entrant of t his labor nearly probably has to create its own distribution channel and make another investment which causes a barrier to entry this perseverance become high.Powerful Buyers LowThe product is targeted to individual buyer so integrityr than large-volume buyer therefore buyers will have only small advocate to force the price down.The product is variantiated or targeted for niche market therefore the buyer will not easily find the utility(a) product.Harley also produces part and accessories as proprietary components for their bikes which are not produced by other ships union.There is quite a small procedure of this industry in the akin market.Since the product is differentiated, the customer tends not to price sensitive. flip-flop Products HighCustomers taste is shifted into Japanese motorbike.Products with the sophisticated features, high quality and new design have been available in the market to adopt the trend-shifting. opposite means of transportation which are little season restrictive.Powerful Suppliers LowThe suppliers customer are not fragmented so they have a high bargaining powerSwitching cost of changing suppliers is not too high since it doesnt require to invest heavily to be a supplier.Competitive Rivalry HighLack of products differentiation or fix product line.Industry growth is slow, precipitating fights for market share that look at expansion minded membersExit barriers are high. Harley has a high loyalty to keep the business survive.The rivals, for example Honda, are diverse in strategies, origins and personalities to compete and continually run head-on into each other.Competitor Analysis/ strategical IssuesThere are four strategic issues that H-D has to face with. The roughly substantial is the European market where H-D has to change magnitude its sales, then, linked with the first issue, there is a fierce competition with the Japanese firms such(prenominal) as Honda and Yamaha. The other issues are the womens market and the accessories which are in decline.Harley-Davidson is not very famous in Europe where Harleys market share of 650 cc plus wheel is less than 7% (6.6%), while in northerly America Harley-Davidson has a extensive market share (46.4%), 21.3% for the Asian market. The main industry competitors are Honda, Suzuki, Yamaha, Kawasaki and BMW. Harley-Davidson is the market leader in the U.S. market with 46.4% market share (Woodyard). Their domestic dumbfound is quite secure however the rival companies are all aiming to accession their impact on the North American market.Honda remains the main competitor with a 20.2% market share in North America. Even though they trail behind Harley in the high amplification market for overburdened bikes, Honda sells more bikes worldwide than H-D. Honda provides a wider selection of products ranging from super sport bikes, cruisers, scooters and motor cross bikes. The popularity of cruiser bikes is increasing and last year the registrations for heavy t ilt motorcycles rose by 22%, but Harleys share fell from 50.2% in 1997 to 46.4% in 2002 (Woodyard). This means that companies like Honda are quite successful in taking customers away from Harley.Rival manufacturers such as Kawasaki or BMW have all made a serious attempt to establish them at the heart of Harleys market. The Japanese bikes were often considered to be sissy cycles by Harley lovers (Mitchell). This go for is slowly changing and the Japanese companies are trying to out Harley the Harley models. Yamaha motor USA is starting to improve its ready in its various markets. The U.S. sales have enlarged for 47% since 1998.Despite these successes, companies have had a convoluted time in creating an plan for themselves particularly in the cruiser markets. Harley quells to reign the U.S, market and is also the leader in the Asian/Pacific markets with 21.3% market share.So, compared with Honda, its main competitor, H-D is better in North America and in Asia-Pacific, but cert ainly not in Europe. There is not too practically gap amidst all the competitors, especially between H-D and Honda (21.3% against 19.1%). only, this is totally different in Europe for Harley-Davidson who has only 6.6% of market share this market is the most promising. Thats why Harley-Davidson has to focus especially its marketing in the European market in order to win market shares, and reduce the gap between its competitors. Moreover, Harley net revenue in Europe is the second behind the U.S. So, if Harley break throughs in increasing its market share in Europe, its net revenue could be in high growth.Then, in order to fully understand its market, and in order to compete in a more serious way its competitors, H-D must identify the distinct segments that their competitors focus on and what distinctive product service benefits they offer.Hondas activities are forcing H-D into a niche market. The company is known for its tractableness and is progressively introducing bigger and better bikes. The Japanese manufacturer is starting to increase its war-ridden pressure by applying some of the strategies implemented by Harley. Honda is solution to improve its relations with its customers and is also trying to build a aesthesis of community among its customers. The Honda Rider Club of America is Hondas attempt to achieve the same sense of belonging Harley bikers have with their beloved brand (www.honda.com). The club allows customers to gain 24-hour emergency roadside services. The club also organizes a number of events and rallies for the Honda fans. Honda is also trying to create the next generation of loyal Honda bikers. Honda organizes a number of Motor-Cross Camps for young riders. Some of the main activities include locomote feed ins races and riding trips and family activities, the main way to gain the loyalty of young bikers who will hopefully stay loyal to the brand, as they get older. These community-building strategies are proving to be extremely beneficial for the Japanese firm. The Honda new models such as the swarthiness 750, the VTX 1300S are Hondas attempts to steal some of Harleys market share by recreating the Harley feel. master line technology is the main strategy to achieve this goal. Yamaha is also trying to outstrip Harley and is improving its mass customization skills. The Yamaha website offers a section that allows customers to design their own bike and choose the look and functionality they desire. The interface ensures customers to choose from 75 Yamaha accessory items and makes it unaccented for the customer to purchase the bike online. The Yamaha V Max model, the Drag Star, and the lane Star models attract customers with their slick design and technological tweaks (www.yamaha.com). The Yamaha sports models are also very successful and the company is still maintaining a strong stain in world markets.European rivals are also trying to make an impact on this lucrative market. Italys Moto Guzzi recently introduced the V11 EV custom cruiser. BMW introduced 3 models of its R1200C cruiser and thanks to clever advertizement is beginning to improve its position in the U.S. and Asian markets (www.bmw.com).According to the website, only 10% of the Harleys customers are pistillates. But womanly bikers are more and more interested by bikes (www.moto-station.com). Yamaha and Kawasaki are trying to scoop out advantage of this growing interest of female bikers and umpteen of their ads feature women on motorcycles. Harley has already understood this new opportunity.Another key issue for the future is the problem of the accessories. Indeed, those products such as perfumes or cosmetics are decreasing a lot. So, Harley-Davidson should take a decision active this unsuccessful strategy of brand reaching. But, this strategy has a lot of success regards to the leatherwear and fashion area. According to me, Harley-Davidson should continue to improve this brand stretching and not leave the marke t of cosmetics and perfumes.V. fiscal Assessment of Industry Harley Davidson ult Current Financial transactionYear 2003$ 4.6 billion total revenue (up 13% from 02)$ 761 trillion net income (up 31% from 02)$650 million free capital flow (up 59% from 02)Repurchased 2.3 million shares of stockReturn an comely beauteousness 20%291,000 H-D units shipped (up 10% from02)36% Gross advance margin (up from 02)Gross profit margin 37.87% of revenueYear 2004$5.0 billion total revenue (up 8.5% from03)$889 million net income (up 16.9% from 03)Repurchased 10.6 million shares of stockReturn on average out right 25%317,289 motorcycle units shipped (up 9% from 03)EPS 3.0 (20% increase form last year)(Hoovers Online)Trends ForecastsPushed by an increase in female riders, wider age group, and the broadening call down of motor scooters and other small, less-expensive deuce-wheelers, motorcycles sales rose 4.7% to top 1 million for the second-consecutive year (Woodyard). heretofore a market slowdown is looming due to the weak dollar, costs of firebrand and other materials are rising this will cause makers to rises prices or take a hit on profits. Currently all segments in the market are increasing, however scooters and classically styled so-called cruiser bikes are of the most heavily increasing and popular segments (Woodyard).Business Models of Firms in the ride IndustryFirms in the motorcycle industry operate in two modes of the business model Just-In-Time and Built-To-Order. Companies such as Honda and Harley primary focus are on supplying motorcycles through licensed distributors and dealers. Smaller dealers focus on built-to-order where riders can create performance and style designed to complement their style, size, and skill level.Profit PoolsHarleys primary sources of profits come from the initial motorcycle sale, finance contracts, licensing agreements, product upgrades, and accessory goods. Based on this information we can conclude that Harley does a good job of extracting the most margins from its customer base.Key Financial Performance poetic rhythm of study Players *Market share figure in 2004 ( %)North America Market share 2004 (%)Harley Davidson 48.1Honda 18.6Suzuki 10.3Yamaha 9.1Kawasaki 7.1BMW 2.8Other 4.0(WoodYard)Key Valuation Metrics of Major Players *Harley Davidson Financial Performance2004Market Cap 13,638.01Earning Rate 20.3% produce Rate 5.3%P/E 15.10(Standard Poors NetAdvantage)*SP considers Harley-Davidson to have no competitors hence no competitor metrics are available.VI. Competitive AnalysisStrengthsCustomer subjection and FollowingVery High Product DemandProfitable Product Line and Market MixHighest Market Share for Motorcycles over 750cc in the United StatesUnion contract that is beneficial to both the Firm and the Employees probatory opportunities in the growing worldwide motorcycle marketA proven management team thats committed to build a beneficial relationship with all of the stakeholders for the long te rmIncreased capacity with the construction of new plant and distribution centerIncreased Segmentation with the purchase of Buell Motorcycle Co.WeaknessesInefficiency due to Large Production LevelMore Demand than bring outLower Than expected Sales in Motor Clothes linger rebel biker imageOpportunitiesElectronic commerce and communicationsOpportunities in the female market nicheThreatsTariffs that might exist in other markets faux of Harleys products from other competitors.Loss of market share due to low production capacityVII. Market/CustomerHarleys customers are not the metal bikers customers who used to be in the past. Indeed, Harley-Davidson attracts now more profession such as lawyers or doctors about 45 years with a metier income level. H-D has developed a brand stretching strategy can also be an element of Harleys success in developing relationships with customers. Indeed, owners can buy other Harleys products than bikes it means that they can be more than a biker, they can j oin Harleys group buying leather accessories or clothes, and even cosmetics. youthful trends show there is an increase in the market segment to appeal to women. Roughly 10% of riders in the U.S. are women which offer potential for growth.Although motorcycles are sold internationally, 3 main geographic markets comprise the bulk of motorcycle sales North America, Asia, and Europe. The largest is the North American Market (USA and Canada account for about 60% of this market) be for 60% of worldwide motorcycle sales (Klein). With the corrupt generation aging, opportunities exist for the penetration of new markets.The Japanese market accounting for a great chunk of the Asian Market is an untapped one for foreign manufacturers. Government regulations and trade policies make it difficult for foreign manufacturers to enter though. Most Asians consider motorcycles as a basic means of transportation. Major target areas include China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam.The European Market is another market with great potentials since Europeans have a higher disposable income and enjoy a higher standard of living. Eastern Europe is not offering a good deal mainly because of its unstable political and economic environment. To succeed in these markets, firms are to modify products to meet local needs, provide later sales service, expand distribution networks, and create strong customer relationships (Klein).VIII. home(a) Capabilities IssuesIssuesExports in Europe are not that easy since the products are going to be acceptable to heavy tariffs, since they come from a country right(prenominal) the European community. In the future a subsidiary in one of the European community countries would relax the tariffs. Also loss of market share due to low production capacity may also preclude Harley from gaining potential new customers because of the extended waiting period.Management DepthHarley Davidson has a flexible management that encourages employee involvement by having an open door polity to allow employee to communicate and contribute his and her idea to senior management or CEO (Teerlink).Organization IssuesWith over 8000 salaried and unionized employees are the key competency to H-D success. Employees are considered as foundation of company success and are the engine to drive company to success, because employee involvement is strong culture in H-D where employees are empowered to take initiative to identify and solve problems. (Teerlink). range ChainMarketing AdvertisingHarley Owner Group convoys free advertisingPromotions at motorcycles rallies and improve dealer network to broaden appeals to new customers non much spending on advertisingLicensing brand/logo to more than 100 manufacturers thereby increasing exposure to customerDistributing newsletter and call down ralliesHuman resourcesHarley Davidson mechanics and dealership personnel were trained at Harley Davidson University. They took course in retail management, inventory control, merchandisi ng, customer service, diagnostics, maintenance, engine service technique. proffer in -dealership courses through its web based distance learning syllabusServiceDemo ride in various location through all USDaily rental to decide whether they want to buyProviding training course for inexperienced riders in America, Europe and Asia (25 hour Riders ring Program) contributed to company change magnitude sales from female buyers (increased from 2% total sales before adapting to 9% in 2003). The company found that woman more likely to purchase later on taking training courseFinancial service to make it more affordableOperationsThe companys expansion plan of its York and Pennsylvania plants expects to allow the company to increase production to 400,000 units by 2007. distributionThrough dealershipsShowrooms offer a large assortment of clothing items and accessories in addition to new motorcyclesDealers are responsible for operating showrooms, stock parts and accessories.161 dealers in Jap an.50 dealers and 3 distributors in Australia and New Zealand.7 dealers in South East Asian and East market.InfrastructurePublic listed companyQuality system system planning are not clearCore Competencies and Competitive AdvantageCustomer loyalty and brand imageValuable? Yes rare? YesCostly to imitate? YesNon substitutable? YesA result competence and a sustainable competitive advantageLarge-displacement motorcyclesValuable? YesRare? Yes (for now)Costly to imitate? NoNon substitutable? YesYields only a temporal competitive advantageVIIII. Strategies of Harley DavidsonAs stated earlier, strategic issues that H-D has faced is increased segmentation in the motorcycle industry causing them to shift focuses in their strategy. With the purchase of Buell Motorcycle Co. they have been successfully able to increase their market segmentation by offering high quality bikes at competitive price. This allowed H-D to have to opportunity to move from a differentiation strategy to a cost/differe ntiation strategy.Harley Davidsons use of the Cost/Differentiation as a Business Level Strategy has proven highly successful since they have been in business. They have always tried to differentiate themselves from everyone else in the motorcycle industry, by producing a brand image that many competitors have failed to recreate. Harley Davidson has two different companies built into one. The first of the two companies produces motorcycles at competitive prices against their competitors. Harley Davidson demands high standards of quality and efficiency and demand lower costs, which will add to a higher quality less expensive motorcycle. Harley Davidson has do extensive research to find out information about their average customer. Harley Davidson concluded that the average motorcycle consumer is a married, college educated, 38 year-old male earning $44,250 a year and his average income is increasing. Research also shows that females represent 10% of the new purchasers.The second comp any that Harley Davidson implemented is the Costume Vehicle Operations or CVO. This company specializes and customizes the motorcycles to eccentric the individual owner. Harley Davidson also offers genuine parts and accessories so Harley owners can customize their own motorcycles. The CVO tries to use the differentiation strategy to beat out its competitors. The customization of a motorcycle can prove to be very expensive and time consuming, but Harley Davidson knows that what good is a bike if you cannot show people who you unfeignedly are. The customers are willing to wait an average of 1 year after placing their order to receive their customized motorcycle. Every other motorcycle manufacturer is trying to imitate Harley and their products. Harley has the top of the industry manufacturing process with large state of the art factories, and distribution, with many small and personalized, to market dealers, who sell their products.Harley Davidsons Corporate Level Strategy tends to favor the Related Diversification Strategy. Their two primary businesses are relate to each other in some manner or another. The two divisions, CVO and the Competitive Price Division, are related by using the same suppliers. Although the two divisions serve two totally different responsibilities to the consumers, they are authentically related in their strengths to differentiate themselves from all the other competition. Harley Davidson does not do much promotion at the corporate level. Primarily, the local dealers do their promotion.Harley Davidson uses many different types of strategies to help them become on of the most dominant motorcycle producers in the world.X. Assessment AnalysisThe Senior Paper has given an original look into strategies at work and based on the analysis done it is reasonable to assume that H-D will be successful staying competitive. H-D implemented changes in the 90s to prepare for the future challenges and stay ahead of competition. They have targeted towards improving and expanding manufacturing and creating new products and services. Thus far, the strategies have been very successful and have built strong relationships with all their shareholders.H-D has found new ways to extract margins from its customer base through finance contracts, licensing agreements, product upgrades, and accessory goods. It has expanded it product line to the small and mid-size range with the purchase of Buell Motorcycle Co. They know who their customers are, and which markets they need to expand on. They also have happy unionized workers who share the same values as the management team. Most importantly through the decades, H-D motorcycles have had the top executive to generate emotion. This emotion and loyal has never been duplicated by any company to date, and probably never will. If H-D continues to innovate there is not question that they continue to gain market share.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Statements of individual rights

Statements of some iodin even upsStatements of individual rightsIndividual rights play an important role in each nation as they consider that persons atomic number 18 not discriminated against in all(a) aspect of their lives. It is important for individuals to arrive at an adequate understanding of their rights as delegacy of ensuring they be treated fairly and with honesty. Protection of individual rights requires formulation and bridal of statements or policies which subvent all entities surrounding an individual. These statements be usually encompassed deep down the constitution of the nation hence as result of incompatible nations having different constitutions the statements vary. Culture, religion and social factors may also proceed statements of individual rights adopted by a nation thereby making critical digest of such factors essential prior to adoption of individual rights statements. However, for the Tagg Island it is important to discriminate and contra st the existing statements of individual rights which govern different nations. This is mainly as result of some statements not world applicable to the Island since it comprises of a undersize population which is primarily involved in farming and fishing activities which ar considered simple in comparison those taking place in sizable nations. There be several fair plays comprising statements of individuals rights which might be efficacious to the Island and these atomic number 18 inclusive of, but not limited to legislation of Hammurabi ca 1760 B.C.E., Magna Carta 1215, incline Bill of Rights 1689, U.S. Bill of Rights 1789 and the Declaration of military personnel Rights.U.S. Bill of rights focuses mainly on the relationship between the arms of organization and the citizens of the nations. It encompasses statements which prohibit Congress from creating laws which affect adversely the right of individuals to join religious groups hence providing plenty with granting i mmunity of worship. Congress is forbidden from making laws which infringe the rights of the people in all way as individual rights atomic number 18 treated with much honour (Brant, 1965). U.S. Bill of rights protects the citizens from activities of the federal government which might lead to people universe deprived of their lives, properties and liberty without some(prenominal) good reason. In accordance with its statements individuals who are suspect of any wrong doing should be taken to court gum olibanum provided with a chance to defend themselves-before a final judgment is situated upon them. The Bill empowers the court and through the constitution the court is assured of license from the federal government thereby ensuring that finales made by the court are fair as it detachs favoritism and nepotism. Unlike U.S. Bill of rights which covers issues related to government and citizen relationship thus national level, the Code of Hammurabi ca 1760 covers a turn down leve l in which the elders act as the head of the society. It entails guidelines which ensure that the rights of people are protected thus not discriminated by others who might be having more power and authority. It uses traditional methods in solving issues which arise in the society thereby bringing quietude and harmony in the society. In accordance with this law if any person accuses another of any offensive natural process solving the matter involves using the river which serves as court (Johns, 2000). The impeach is indispensable to leap into the river and if he sinks the accuser takes possession of all his belongings while on the other hand if the reverse occurs the incriminate take possession of the property of the accuser while the accuser is put to termination for wrong accusation. A disperse from the river acting as the court, in some cases elders may perform the same function in solving reprehensible issues affecting the community in which death is the penalization fo r capital offenses. In ensuring that individual rights are fully protected the statements emphasizes death as way of ensuring that individuals are not wrongfully accused of any crime. Magna Carta encompasses laws which govern monarchy schemas of governance unlike the U.S. Bill of rights which covers federal government and social intercourse functions with respect to the citizens. It required Kings and Queens to proclaim rights pertaining to individual emancipation, respect levelheaded procedures and in addition to that accept that their wills are bound by the law (Holt, 1992). Magna Carta protected the rights of all individuals irrespective of their status or rank and in addition to that allowed individuals to appeal against unlawful imprisonment. Unlike the Code of Hammurabi which does not cover a persons freedom of worship, Magna Carta ensures that individuals right of worship is respect and in addition, it guarantees the freedom of the church in conducting its activities wit hin the designated boundaries (Holt, 1992). like to the US Bill of rights, Magna Carta ensures that right to due process is guaranteed to each person who is accused of taking part in criminal activities (Holt, 1992). An individual accused of any crime has to go through the judicial process which provides them with an opportunity to defend themselves against the criminal activity which they are accused of. Unlike the Code of Hammurabi which uses traditional methods of making decisions regarding the accused thus susceptible to mistakes being made regarding the case, Magna Carta entails use of the court system which is comprised of law professionals. In using professionals who understand the law comprehensively and have adequate experience reduces the chance of mistakes being made in the decision made regarding the crime at hand. In recognition of the need for freedom, peace and justice in the world, United Nations formulated several laws whose role was to eliminate oppression and di scrimination in the world. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights set forth by the United Nations seeks to ensure that individual rights are respected by all entities. In accordance with this declaration all individuals are authorise to their rights and freedom irrespective of their race, gender, religion and social background (United Nation, 1948). Similar to the US Bill of rights and Magna Carta, it encompasses statements which emphasize freedom of individuals. Governments and other corporate organizations are required to be aware of individual rights thus ensure that their operations and activities do not infringe on the rights of individuals. Unlike the Code of Hammurabi, the humankind rights declaration is against use of torture and other cruel inhuman methods as way of inflicting punishment to individuals who have committed or are suspected to have committed the offense (United Nation, 1948). Furthermore, the Declaration of Human Rights emphasizes that all individuals acc used of crime have the right to defend themselves in court thus should be presumed innocent until proven guilty by court of law (United Nation, 1948). This statement is similar to that encompassed in the US Bill of rights as the courts are given the responsibility of deciding on the matter. The declaration also encompasses statements which ensure that individuals are not discriminated against at their place work as swell as during the process of securing exercise thereby ensuring provision of equal chances of employment (United Nation, 1948). Contrary to majority of laws, it entails statements which protect individuals from being deprived of their nationality or being denied their right to change their nationality. In accordance with the United Nations statements of individual rights every(prenominal) person is entitled to having a nationality thus belonging to a peculiarly nation (United Nation, 1948). In addition to that people can work in any country under the united Nation i nsignia thus full-grown people with a wide variety of option when searching for a job. This statement is unique as it is only encompassed in the Declaration of Human rights and not in other laws which may include U.S. Bill of rights, Code of Hammurabi and Magna Carta. Unlike laws such as US Bill of rights which are limit to national boundaries, the declaration is universal thus covering a wider region. Recommendations The pastime is a list of some of the individual rights which might be useful to the Island nation1. No one should be deprived of their property as every person has the right to own property. 2. All individuals are entitled to equal pay for same amount of work done. 3. No one shall be subjected to torture or any inhuman methods of punishment. 4. All individuals are entitled to a fair and public hearing conducted by the elders or any independent tribunal in determination of any criminal activity charge against him. 5. Everyone has the right to freedom of worship and of having a placid assembly. 6. Everyone is entitled to rest and leisure with reasonable working hours and holidays with pay. ReferencesBrant, I. (1965). The bill of rights its contrast and meaning. Retrieved September 5, 2009 from http//www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=od=34605556Holt, J.C. (1992). Magna Carta. Cambridge Cambridge University PressJohns, C.W. (2000). The oldest code of laws in the world. metropolis Lawbook Exchange Ltd. United Nations, (1948). The universal declaration of human rights. Retrieved September 5, 2009 from http//www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/atop

Part Gender Discrimination Plays In Career Development Sociology Essay

Part sexual practiseivity Discrimination Plays In C atomic number 18er Develop handst Sociology EssayAs defined by Ambassador, F. J, sex is a thought that refers to a system of roles and dealingships between women and men that argon determined, not by biology but by the social, g overnmental and frugal context. The soci everyy determined disagreeences between men and women argon referred to as sexual urge, whilst the biologically determined characteristics atomic number 18 referred to as sex. An important explicition between sexual urge and sex is all that women and men do, and all that is expected of them, a lay out from their distinct sexual function (child bearing and breast feeding, provision of sperm, impregnation) which changes with succession and vary social and cultural factors (Ambassador F. J. B, 2007).As defined by Wikipedia on the separate hand, Discrimination is a sociological term referring to the treatment taken towards or against a person of a certain group in good go forth base solely on class or category. It refers to the actual doings portrayed by an individual, group of individuals or society towards anformer(a). And basically involves the self-control of whizz group from opportunities and rights that argon available to other groups. There be varied forms of secernment, but all form of dissimilarity involves the exception of angiotensin converting enzyme group from the other Wikipedia, The free encyclopaedia, (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrimination).Determined variants of behaviour such as rights, obligations, and prerogatives assigned to females and males in society be referred to as sexual practice roles. They differ with time, place and from one society to another. G dismisser roles are constructed on the class such asMen are wagerer than womenMen are cleverer than womenMens utilisations are more(prenominal) valuable than womens plyWomen are loose and dependentMen are unanimous and independentFurt hermore, as polish is dynamic and socioeconomic situation change over time, so sex activity patterns change with them. What women and men do discharge radically changed as a way out of war, famine or disaster. Gender does not address wad but issues, issues such as births, roles, characteristics, differences and social expectations (Ambassador F. J. B, 2007, Abram, S. 2002). check to Ambassador F. J. B, (2007) , Gender issues in evolution concerns division of works class, inequation in access to resources, inputs and benefits. The questions to be asked are Is in that location parity? Is access open to all? Is it stringent to many? Gender in comparison is a breeding problem which refers to relations of power (between rich and short, between women and men) that keeps equi dodge cultivation and the fictional charactericipation of all. As a result, development moves at a slow pace, conflict, lack of interest, disunity, poor participation, opinion sharing becomes circums cribed and there is a setback in society. The main concern rough sexual practice issues in development is the actions postulate to correct the imbalance between men and women. Gender issues are then not about womens participation or womens development per se. In the broader sense, they are about addressing imbalance in society. It is an important planning tool. The gender compendium of who does what or who controls what can assist planners in closing the gender kerfuffle since in planning the issue at stake is that of power human relationship or power sharing (Ambassador F. J. B, 2007, Abram, S. 2002) . consort to Ambassador F. J. B, (2007), a gender perspective looks not at women alone but at the relationship between women and men and how societies are structure along gender lines.It is touch on withWomens involvement concerns, needs and aspirations as well as those for menThe conflict of policies, plans and projects on women, men and childrenAssessing to who the benefit s accrue and in what ways, Financial and other soft and quantitative benefits whitethorn be assessedThe whole process of gender planning.According to Stuart Malkin, gender discrimination as the name implies, is a form of virgule that is hurtful and to a great ex hug drugt, it is as destructive as any other form of bias. In his Ezine article, Stuart Malkin stated that women and men are not created equal they each aim their God given strengths, focuse on their responsibilities for procreation and family vi might . These differences according to him are difficult to dismiss but are certainly not the cause for gender discrimination in the shoot in token and society in general (http//enzinearticle.com/?Gende-Bias-GenderDiscrimination-Gender- compeerityid=14755).Discrimination on the other is defined by Wikipedia as a term mainly used by sociologists to refer to the treatment taken towards or against a person of a certain group in consideration ground solely on class or category. It refers to a behaviour pattern portrayed by one group which involves excluding or restricting other group members from opportunities available them. There are motley forms of discrimination, but all forms a virtually speaking the same language of rejection or exclusion (Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrimination)1.2 Statement of the problem.Women form the largest single sector of the universe in the United Kingdom but moreover form the nonage group in the attainment of run shortershiphip roles in the fight take in. For decades, women crossways the climb on energize been battling against inequality between men in a bid to bridge the labour force shift, and yet count slightly form of gender discrimination in the workplace that limit their gainsay to attain higher level caution roles. The perception about womens experience were base on stereotypical assumptions and prejudice such as womens act was to a great extent attributed to lu ck or effort or else than the ability to perform, men are cleaver than women Men are strong and independent Women are weak and dependent and a vast volume of people had the notion that child bearing and house maintenance are predominantly a womans social roles and responsibilities. Such perceived assumptions resulted to the vast mass of competent women that have excellence potential to stagnate in hypothesise assignments that lack challenge. Moreover, unlike men, women over the years have limited well-grounded, political and economic rights which largely incrementd their dependency on men for fiscal and other operator of support (Lyness and Thomson, 1997).However, with the advent of equal purpose fortune legislations and the formation of the Gender and travel Development-UK, and the Equal Opportunity agencys to enforce and follow through these legislations in practice and promote equal opportunity, womens rights are now protect by law against any form of discrimination in the work place that tend to limit or restrict their aspirations and rush increase opportunities as well as enabling them to overcome prejudice.Even though women to a certain extent have experienced a demonstrable change in their social status due to employment equality legislations and law enforcement, there is certainty among women as well as the heathen minority that discrimination and inequality still exist in well-nigh form. A good number of women and ethnic minority group face artificial barriers in establishments that deter them from making the best use of their knowledge, skills and abilities to heighten the passage lather. Unlike men, there is great number of occupations or positions that appeared unfeasible for women to attain. Therefore, the vast majority of women in the UK labour force are stand for in middle and low managerial positions with less decision making, whilst cured level management and important decision making positions are held by men. It is b ecause of this gender crack and imbalance in society that has brought the idea to check into about the eminent barriers that prevent women from move advancement.1.3 The Purpose of the employmentThis look for study is an onset to find out the part gender discrimination renovate in career development a case study of pregnancy bring toers in the UK legal Profession. Therefore in this look for study, career development in maternal quality returners is being evaluated and compared with the career development in men.From the side of career development in maternity returners in the UK legal occupation especially in the area of packaging, the set up lit give notices an incomplete attempt to identify and resolve the barriers women face in career development in the workplace. Therefore, this look study is an attempt to bridge those gaps in the present writings regarding the obstacles (barriers) women especially maternity returners experience inwardly the UK legal art.Succe ssful realization and examination of these barriers will form a unique benchmark for testimonial in order to create a viable society that is discrimination free and thus create a frame work for career development of maternity returners in the UK legal profession. Research studies expected by Killham et al (2005) concluded that present day system of ruless recognise the importance of developing women leaders for the twenty first century (Killhan, Hookah, and McCarty, 2005). ONeill (2005) highlighted that for any organisation to thrive and pull through in the future depends largely on their success in help women leaders succeed.Although there appeared to be an increase in the proportion of women in the labour force according to Killham et al, 2005, an attempt to hire and retain this accelerating consortium of talent requires the ability of organisations to identify and mitigate the potential threats women face in these establishments, and the ability of these establishments to meet the developmental needs of the said talent pool. A greater dexterity is gived in every item stave in establishments that localise and successfully develop this increasing pool of talent, and hence come through a comparative class advantage over other establishments in attracting and retaining exceedingly skilled and talented staff (killham, Hookhah, and McCarty, 2005).Recent look for with regards to the glaze roof suggested that Gender discrimination in career development have prohibit implications in the development of society in general and organisations in particular (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass_ ceiling). Although issues surrounding gender discrimination has been a part of the UK governance and organisational policies and are encounterd with unique legislations within the frame work of developing future leaders, research targeting the barriers to career development of maternity returners in the UK legal profession are yet to be turn outd and addressed. T he findings from the investigation of the barriers to career development of maternity returners in the UK legal profession will serve to mitigate the rising problems of women stagnating in lower managerial positions (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass_ceiling).The gap in the research related to crosswise gender relationships, which is typical of an organisation such as the UK legal profession where the vast majority of the senior positions are held by males, prompted the need to experience the specific limitations that deter women (maternity returners) from attaining senior positions as their male counterpart. The study seeks to see some of the major gaps in the present literature by providing a frame work that addresses the barriers to career development in women, especially maternity returners.1.4 Significance of the studyThe significance of this research study can be viewed based on the following reasonsThere is a minute fraction of women in leaders positions that can be looked upon as role models.The conduct of this research study is to assist the UK legal profession in achieving better organisational surgery through the reduction or otherwise elimination of gender discrimination barriers in order to enable women attain their desired objectives.Women to a great extent are playing a vital and various role within the UK legal profession.1.5 Objectives of the studyThe ultimate objective of the present study is to investigate the likelihood of women to gain promotion on return from maternity.The present(prenominal) objectives are as followsTo examine the frequency of promotionTo examine potential barriers to developmentTo examine the utility of gender based initiativesTo examine justice perception.To evaluate the quality of work To examine the skills and clevernesss acquiredTo examine the space of serviceTo examine employee development and gender discrimination1.6 Justification of the Study1.6.1 Lost Productivity In an establishment where gender discrimi nation is prevalent, there is every tendency for competent employees with excellent potential to remain in place in non-challenging suppose positions. This to a great extent can lead to lost productiveness and will result to the employee seeking for another bloodline elsewhere. This to a great extent can lead to lost productiveness and will result to the employee seeking for another job elsewhere. In to the highest degree cases, the most competent employees are denied of adequate training, not considered for promotions and are denied of raises based on gender. The employees that face this type of discrimination often become dissatisfied and hence in most cases result in lost productivity. On a daily bases, employees who feel they are less appreciated or inadequately compensated will not give their best to the job but may rather excrete paying work time on unrelated job activities like gossiping with co-workers about labour practices that seem unfair or job hunting, to name but a few. When employees feel they are been discriminated against at work, and are unable to find an immediate positive remedy, can increase their anxiety, increase dependence or result to substance abuse and cause depression. Company sick leave increase as a result, and can cause work to be limited and hence result to lost productivity (Julia, F, 2010).1.6.2 Trained Personnel moderate If trained and competent forcefulness do not see harvest-feast opportunities, they will eventually leave the company, thereby creating a void or gap that needs to be filled. Though employees are replaceable, it requires time and bullion to train one. Moreover, it requires a great deal of time to enable a new employee to develop a level of efficiency or productivity that is equal to that held by a previous experienced employee. By having to spend this additional time and money to train and develop new employees means lost production and increased work hours, and hence the profit potential of the compa ny is reduced (Julia, F, 2010).1.6.3 Decreased Profits Lawsuits, humanity chiding and sanctions may arise as a result of discrimination at workplace. transaction with issues surrounding these lawsuits and sanctions may lead to a considerable drain in company resources. These drained resources are sometimes more than just monetary. go to hearing sessions and working on negotiations may require experienced personnel which tend to take expertise away from the company leaving the gap either void or less qualified personnel may need to tentatively fill the gap and hence production is at stake. The company can lose customer confidence if lawsuits become public knowledge. There is every tendency that customers may result to taking their disdain elsewhere and highly qualified personnel may seek for jobs elsewhere. This will ultimately cause the company to lose potential profits (Julia, F, 2010).1.6.4 pretermit of Team Work Gender discrimination can cause employees to have a different pe rception about the job and hence working together as a team becomes in consummationive in the workplace. This is more so when an employee realises that there are differences (parity) in compensation with his co-employee who has less responsibility, and yet received a better compensation because of gender. When asked to work together on a team project, the employee being discriminated against may not give his or her best. As a result, the individuals expertise and abilities are lost (Julia, F, 2010).1.7 Research Questions.3. literary works REVIEWThe focus of this research study is an attempt to examine what part does gender discrimination play in career development? A case study of maternity returners in the United Kingdom legal profession. The literature in this research is focused entirely on cardinal broad categories viz-a-viz gender discrimination and career development and how gender discrimination affect potential career attainment of employees in establishments in particular and society in general.Women across the board are been discriminated at various fronts. Even though a lot has been done to bridge the gap on gender discrimination through Government legislation and organisational policies, there is yet more to be investigated and resolved in order to achieve the desired pertain in development. Gender Discrimination in career development and attainment of leadership roles is a major concern liner women in organisations in the United Kingdom and is the principal factor that causes women over the years to lag behind in the advancement to higher levels in most giving medications ( ).A lot of research has been done on gender discrimination and the launch it has on the development of society. These hold a comparative study conducted by the gender and career development-UK 2005/6, and the render ceiling effect that examined the issue of gender and carer development and examine the continuing restrictions or limitations to achieving equality of oppor tunity in career development in the United Kingdom. This was a labour force survey conducted by the National Office for statistics (Labour force mountain bow 19 http//www.statistics.gov.uk). This is reflected on the data illustrated in table 1. The data suggests that female employees are less promising to gain managerial positions due to reasons yet undiscovered which this case study is attempting to investigate.The data (on separationism and mobility) below is taken from the Labour Force Survey published by the National Office for Statistics.Table 1. each in employment by socio-economic classification (%)TotalHigher ManagerialLower Managerial mean(a) baseborn employer and own businessLower supervisorySemi-routineRoutineAll28,81214.428.512.39.910.714.310Male15,52418.824.76.213.614.210.512.2Female13,2889.332.919.45.56.718.87.4Source Labour Force Survey Table 19 http//www.statistics.gov.uk/ (Extracted,Table 2. Part time and temporary workers by socio-economic classification.Total Higher Managerial %Lower Managerial %Intermediate %Small employer and own business %Lower supervisory %Semi-routine %Routine %All7,3245.921.917.39.16.126.713Male1,9961019.37.1196.121.217.3Female5,6554.922.519.76.76.128.112Source NOS Table 21 http//www.statistics.gov.uk/The Gender and career development -UK is working with employers and professional institutes to tackle the structured barriers that tend to deter women from working in certain influence profession.The focus of recent research has been on the glass ceiling effect that impedes the career development of women in the attainment of leadership roles. The situation is referred to as ceiling as there is a limitation blocking upward advancement, and glass (transparent) because the limitation is not immediately apparent and is normally an unwritten and an unofficial policy. The current research study is an attempt to examine the part that gender discrimination play in career development a case study of maternity returners in the legal profession (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass_ceiling).However, a comprehensive research conducted by Kathrine et al (1979) discovered that in precept there appeared a clear path of promotion, but in pragmatism women seem to face impeding factors that limit or retard their career development path. Most women in the labour force cultivated this invention of career development limiting factors, and refused to penetrate and progress beyond these limits. close to seeds refer to this situation as the glass ceilin. It is called Ceiling because there appeared to be a limitation or barrier blocking career advancement, and glass (transparent) because the barrier is not immediately apparent and is normally and unwritten and unofficial policy. To a greater extent, this apparent barrier continues to exist in an out of sight nature and is mainly targeted at women in a bid to prevent them from acquiring jobs at the top level. Since it is unlawful to discriminate by any means such a s this, organisations tend to avoid outlining job specifications based on gender discrimination on job adverts as Equal Employment Opportunity laws deter organisations from discriminating as thus. However, establishments exercise career development discriminatory barriers in a form invisible to the target group and would not accept responsibility if suspected of such act of discrimination. In many cases, establishments tend to use indirect form of gender discriminations to justify their actions.This limiting barrier of glass ceiling deters a considerable number of women from range and securing potentially lucrative and prestigious jobs in the labour force. This apparent and invisible barrier to a greater extent instills the concept of women feeling inferior, unworthy and lacks the confidence to aspire and secure positions of high ranks. The author further noted that this invisible barrier gives women the feeling that their bosses do not take them seriously by all means or do not se e them as potential candidates for jobs of greater responsibility (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass_ceiling).However, Carly Fiorina title that there is nothing that appears like a glass ceiling that prevents women from reaching the top upon becoming Chief Executive Officer and chairwoman of the board of HP. Upon completion of her tenure in office, she called her earlier statement a vague thing to say. In an article written by Rebecca Traister (The truth about Carly, 2009), gave the idea behind Carlys statement (dumb thing to say) meaning that women shouldnt fixate on an invisible barrier thats going to get their way, they should focus on possibilities. (http//www.salon.com/ carriage/feature/2006/10/19/carly_fiorina).As the name implies, glass ceiling is a term that many schools of thought used to describe the perceived barrier to career development (advancement) in most employment establishments and government parastatals due to gender or sex discrimination.The Glass Ceiling Commi ssion in the United States, a government-funded group, provided significant findings regarding the persistence in gender discrimination in the industrial sector and service company employment. The military mission presented a statistical digest in the above mentioned sector employment status. As cited by the outfit Over half of all get the hang degrees are now awarded to women, yet 95% of senior-level managers, of the top fortune deoxyguanosine monophosphate industrial and 500 service companies are men. In that light the commission recommended a reverse discrimination in a bid to end this form of discrimination. The recommendations strictly reflect hiring and promotional decisions and must not be based on gender perspectives but rather on qualification and experience of employees (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass_ceiling).In another development, the United Nations presented a comprehensive literature in 2006 on account of women and the glass ceiling. Significant findings from the said research study suggested that the rate at which women around the Globe attain leadership and decision making position remains far too slow, and the fortuitous ones underwent a deal of struggle to penetrate and break through the glass ceiling. As cited by Rachel Mayanja (Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Gender Issues), The past ten years have seen the fastest growth in the number of women in parliaments, yet even at this rate, parity between women and men in parliaments will not be reached until 2040. (http//www.un.org/women.watch/daw/csw/50sess.htm), (http//www.un.org/women.watch/feature/iwd/2006/press releaseIWD8march.pdf).Ruderman et al provided an insight on how existing promotional norms can be investigated and challenged within organisations. His findings presented a comprehensive case compend of decisions regarding promotion in an organisation.This research study depicted cases where therewere some variations in the pattern of promotions of men and wome n.As cited by Ruderman et al, one make out difference was when decision makers rung about promotions of men they often (75% of cases) mentioned a high level of puff with the candidate. For women the key issue was continuity where the person promoted should already have an knowing knowledge of part of the new job. According to Ruderman et al, managers seem to have some amount of hesitation in promoting women as they require them to demonstrate private strength, and being able to prove themselves extensively before a promotion is made. Men on the other hand are less likely to have their promotion accounted for in terms of familiarity with job responsibilities.Conger, S. (2002) provided a excusable contestation for the formation of a career development culture as a means (among others) of addressing disproportionate numbers of women and other target groups at lower levels. The development of an organisation depends greatly on its career development culture as it helps in address ing the key organisational aspects of productivity, competitiveness, affirmative action, and succession planning. It gives employees the ability to redefine their talents to realize the full potential of their jobs. This can be achieved by supervision and appraisal, and organizing a system of mentorship. A managed career development culture can be rewardfull to the employee in particular and the establishment in general. Moreover, Congers argument offers the means to accomplish the reasons why both management and workers want a career development culture.In another development, Conger developed cinque strategies which employees need to recognise, create and follow as career opportunities which are beyond the scope of this research (Conger, S. 2002).According to Eagly et al (2007), there are a host of limiting factors that stop or prevent women from advancing to or aspiring for senior level positions which include domestic obligations and child caring, distinction in pay and resist ance to womens leadership, and suggestions were offered to organisations on account of career development in women (advancing women into higher-level roles). Establishments that handle and manage work and work related (employee family) issues well, and do not discriminate against pregnant or potentially pregnant employees, have a greater tendency to attract and retain the talented staff and at the same time enabling them especially the female staff to reach their full potential and hence greater dexterity in every particular employee is attained. As a result, a high degree of return to work rate for women after maternity leave is expected.According to McMaster, F (2005), the rate of returns (benefits) from developing women returners into leadership roles is significant. This was an approach taken by IBM Asia Pacific in relation to workplace flexibility.A statistical analysis drawn by the Australian Bureau of statistics, suggested that an estimated number of 118 Australians return to paid work when their child is aged 6 months or even younger. In a bid to work in accordance with National wellness and Medical Research Council recommendations of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months and World wellness Organisation recommendations for ongoing breastfeeding to two years and beyond, workplace support is all-important(a) (http//www.breastfeeding.asn.au/bfinfo/mfwp.html).As cited by Creagh et al (1998), three case studies were drawn from Sweden, Italy and the UK regarding pliable work practices. In their research, they were able to explore the advantages and disadvantages for both employers and employees. The research analysis suggested that flexible work practices can yield positive outcome if the requisite basic steps are followed.According to Sheridan et al (2000), a kind Resource Management model was developed and think to be used to bridge the gap between employer and employee needs with regards to workplace flexibility. The model is intended to dev elop a process of change that reflects flexible work arrangements that is of interchangeable benefits to both employers and employees. Long term benefits can be achieved by the organisation when the full potential of the employees is realised.Kottke et al presented a root word that highlighted four key underlying processes for intervention to overcome the barriers women face in career development. These includeSocial cognitions, threat potential, justice perceptions, and how to utilise gender based initiatives.This findings suggest that an understanding of how social cognitions, perceptions of fairness, threat, and utility can individually and collectively impact the success or failure of programs to advance women, organizational leaders can develop and implement informed practices that are embraced by all members of the organization and which, consequently, further the advancement of all organizational members.These processes must be considered, followed and managed as part of th e development, implementation and evaluation of initiatives targeting womens career development in a bid to achieve the desired goal.Francis et al (2002) developed a paper in the construction industry that highlighted issues surrounding workers families that is equally relevant and relevant to other works of life. The paper outlined the need for the use of non-traditional management methods to cater for the increased number of women in the work force. Legal requirements and organisational performance were the reasons presented to justify why organisations should care about workers families. A number of initiatives that organisations in general can adopt and implement are then identify and described.According to Davey et al (1994), a research study was conducted that involved in depth interview of 16 women as well as complete and analysed questionnaires of a further 160 women who had taken maternity leave from one institution over an 8 year period.The results obtained from analysis, offered an insight into who returns to work, what provisions and opportunities that boost women to return and the benefits to the organization in providing these provisions.According to a research study conducted in Australia regarding circumstances surrounding pregnancy discrimination at work and progress to formal redress, 318 cases were explored of alleged workplace pregnancy discrimination which were account to a community advocacy organisation

Friday, March 29, 2019

Effect Of Different Concentrations Of Vitamin C

Effect Of dissimilar assiduitys Of Vitamin CThis masterject was designed to investigate the effect of unalike niggardlinesss of vitamin C root on author spr let oning of Brassica parachinensis or Choy Sum. Seeds treated with vitamin C rootages of various submersions were utilise and sprouting percentage was metric. Seeds were soaked in vitamin C solutions of increasing tightnesss for 12 hours, dried and then sown in germinating trays. The roots were irrigate with the like amount of vitamin C solution of respective intentnesss. After 36 hours, the number of germinated rootages was counted and the germination percentage was calculated and put down. Results showed that the germination percentage growths as misfortunate concentration of vitamin C solution was used. It was shown that 1% of vitamin C solution gave the lastest germination percentage. A statistical analytic thinking victimisation Pearson product-moment correlative coefficient showed a statisticall y signifi potentiometert negative bilinear relationship between concentration of vitamin C and germination percentage since the calculated r appraise was greater than critical prize at 5% signifi bungholet level.IntroductionIn order to ontogenesis productivity, it is grievous to improve boilers suit growth and action of agricultural crops. germination station in particular is crucial because an increase in germination rate is usually followed by an improvement of overall rootling performance thus enhancing overall plant growth and productivity.(P bera and Cantliffe, 1991).There ar many factors affecting set out germination such as temperature, humidity, front line of light and dated dormancy. Recently, there is likewise evidence to bind a link between accepted biochemical characteristics and seed zippo.(Randhir and Shetty, 2003) Fast oxidation of fatty hots and proteins potty reduce viability, nada and germination percentage in seeds.11Vitamin C or ascorbic ac id is one of the most widely interpreted dietary supplement.5 It is an antioxidant which is an essential nutrient for living organisms as it protects the body against aerophilic idiom. Vitamin C is made naturally in plants but the amount depends on the variety of plant and external factors on which the plants grow.1Ascorbic acid is an important metabolite composite in many cadreular processes, including cell division (De Gara et al., 2003). Ascorbate has been shown to play aggregate roles in plant growth, such as in cell division, cell wall expansion, and early(a) developmental processes. It can act as a coenzyme for numerous metabolic enzymes and has recently been shown to be a potent antioxidant.12 accede 1 The oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid 6(410 words)Vitamin C interacts with oxidants in an oxidation reaction where ascorbic acid is oxidised to dehydroascorbic acid through an ascorbyl musical theme intermediate.8 The oxidized forms of ascorbate are rela tively unresponsive, and do non cause cellular damage. They can be converted back to ascorbate by cellular enzymes.4 natural covering of ascorbic acid exogenicly whitethorn influence various processes in plants including seed germination, ion usance and transport, and membrane permeability.12Structure of vitamin C or L-ascorbic acidor Dehydroascorbic acidL-ascorbate 4 (nominal oxidized formof Vitamin C) 4Previous reports show nearly conflicting evidence about the effect of vitamin C towards seed germination. spot some researchers say that vitamin C can lift seed vigour as in pea (Pisum Sativum) seeds, 12 some state that its figurehead will inhibit seed germination as in soy sauce seed.13Defined in the qualitative term, seed vigour is the sum of those properties of theseedwhich determine the potential level ofactivity and performance of theseed or seedlot during germination and seedling emergence.12Seeds of genus Brassica are used in this try because the seeds are lower-ran king and support a short action cycle. Therefore, try can be done within few years and the seeds can be used in large number with less(prenominal) space needed.Hence, this experiment was aimed to explore the benefits of vitamin C which is an antioxidant which whitethorn help to increase plant resistance that leads to enhanced crops.(647 words)Experimental supposalThe disgrace the concentration of vitamin C solution, the higher the germination percentage of Brassica parachinensisNull HypothesisThere is no correlation between variant concentrations of vitamin C solutions and the germination percentage of Brassica parachinensis(685 words)Planning psychometric testsTrial experiment was conducted to determine the best(p) range of concentrations of vitamin C solution to be used and the reason equal methods and procedures so that ethical expirations are obtained.Methods InvolvedPreparing vitamin C solution of unalike concentrationsSince the ascendent of vitamin C used is the vi tamin C tablet, the best method chosen is the sequent dilation method. During trial, concentrations tested are 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10% and 0%. The basic stock solution of 100% was brisk by dissolving 100mg of vitamin C tablet in 100ml distilled irrigate in a 300ml beaker. Other concentrations were made by serial dilution method. To prepare 50% concentration of vitamin C solution, same amount of 100% solution and distilled water were added together. Equal amount of 100% and 50% concentrations were mixed up to put forward 75% concentration and so on.Sowing the seedsThe seeds were primed in 6 different Petri truelovees for 12 hours according to its respective concentration. Another 6 Petri dishes were labelled. Layers of cotton fiber of the same thickness were put into Petri dishes and tone down with the same ledger of vitamin C solution of different concentrations. Soaked seeds with similar size were chosen and in additionk out of Petri dish exploitation a pair of forceps. They are then dried using paper towels and were sown in labelled Petri dishes.(909 words)In the first trial, 25 seeds were soaked in different concentrations of vitamin C solution while another(prenominal) 25 seeds were not soaked before being sown. This is to determine whether it is prerequisite to soak seeds or not before sowing.36 hours after sowing seedsConcentration/%Number of seeds germinatedSoaked seeds0151016501 plug-in 1 shows the number of soaked and unsoaked seeds after 36 hoursIn the second trial, each group of 25 seeds were soaked in different concentrations before being sown. This is to determine the best range of concentrations of vitamin C for main experiment.36 hours after sowing seedsConcentration/%Number of seed germinatedTrial 1Trial 2Mean015161610181617255555013275212100101Table 2 shows germination percentage of seeds soaked in different concentrations(1075 words)ResultsAfter 36 hours of sowing, the number of seeds germinated was counted and germination percen tage was calculated. Germination is claimed to have occurred when the radicle was visibly extended from the seed, protruding through a fracture in the seed coat. The result was tabulated.Based on the results obtained after trials were carried out, there were a few things that could be done to improve result. Firstly, more seeds should be used so that the result will be more significant. For the real experiment, 50 seeds were used instead of 25 seeds.Seeds were primed for 12 hours because solid ground is important as seed coat constitutes some chemicals that inhibit germination. Seed priming is a common agronomic technique shown to cause an increaseseed vigour,as well as synchronize and accelerategermination, improve stress resistance, and enhance overallplantgrowth and productivity.12 However, some of the seeds start to germinate and fractures on seed coat could be sight if the seeds were primed for too long. similarly, the range of concentration to be used in real experiment was determined to be between 0% to 10% concentrations because twain showed high percentage of seed germination with only slight difference in treasure.Seeds soaked in 100% concentration showed the low germination percentage. The germination of seeds was almost totally inhibited in this solution. Fractures on the seed coats were observed but radicles were not extended significantly.Besides, after carrying out trial experiment, I realized that it was better to sow seeds in germinating tray preferably than in Petri dishes as Petri dish is round-shaped which made it difficult for me to count the number of seeds germinated.(1351 words)Main experimentVariablesManipulated Concentration of vitamin C solutionDifferent concentrations of vitamin C are prepared using the same serial dilution technique as in trials. unless this time using smaller range of concentrations of 10%, 7.5%, 5%, 2.5%, 1% and 0% (distilled water). But for smaller concentration, micropipette is used instead of measuring piston chamber to make up the total volume of 100ml.Responding Germination percentage (%)Germination percentage is calculated using the following equationGermination is verbalise to occur when radicle emerges (2mm) after 36 hours.Constant mass of vitamin C (100mg/tablet), volume of solution used for soak seeds (20ml/Petri dish) and volume of solution used to moisten cotton (60ml/tray) and environmental factors (light intensity, temperature, and humidity), period of soaking, type and number of seeds. All trays were located under normal white fluorescent lamp and on a lab table at 28C.Apparatus and materialsApparatus300ml beakers, Petri dishes, measuring cylinders, germinating trays, displace rod, micropipette, and pestle and mortar.MaterialsDistilled water, 100mg vitamin C tablet, cotton, choy sum seeds, and paper towels.(1535 words)Safety precautionsGloves were worn when handling vitamin C tablet to prevent tablet from contamination.Micropipette was used with care. The tip of m icropipette was continuously checked to ensure that there is no air bubbles inside it as this may reduce the real(a) volume required for each concentration. drinking glass wares like beakers and measuring cylinders were handled gently since the apparatus may break easily. This may lead to injuries.Soaked seeds were transferred gently using forceps as they are really fragile.Data collections of main studyNumber of seeds used in every(prenominal) concentration 50Soaking for 12 hoursObservations after soaking seeds for 36 hoursConcentration (%)Number of seeds germinatedMean number of seeds germinated retell 1Replicate 2Replicate 30.0454443441.0484847482.5423938405.0414243427.53535343510.034333333Table 2 shows the germination percentage for seeds treated with different concentrations(1712 words)Sample computing (taken entertains from 0% concentration)Germination percentage=44/50 x 100=88%(1749 words)Statistical summaryFor this experiment, Pearson product-moment correlation coeff icient (PMCC) was used to survey the strength of linear dependence between the two variables the different concentrations and the germination percentage. The values obtained are normally distributed.The correlation coefficient, r ranges from -1 to 1. A value of 1 implies that a linear equation describes the relationship between X and Y perfectly for which Y increases as X increases. A value -1 implies correlation in which Y decreases as X increases. A value of 0 implies that there is no linear correlation between the variables.x0.01.02.55.07.510.0x=26y889680847066y=484x20.01.006.2525.056.25100.0x2=188.5y2774492166400705649004356y2=39672xy0.096200420525660xy=1901Table 3 shows the calculations done in calculating the values of rSx = x2 = 188.5 (26)2/6= 75.833Sy = y2 = 39672 (484)2/6= 629.33Sxy = xy = 1901 (26) (484)/6= -196.33 (1933 words)To find correlation coefficient, rr =r = -196.33/ (75.8331/2 x 629.331/2)r = -0.899 (negative sign indicates negative correlation between variab les) item of freedom = n -2n = of pairs of data= 6 2 = 4Level of significance for two-tailed test.10.05.021.988.997.99952.900.950.9803.805.878.9344.729.811.8825.669.754.8336.621.707.789Table 4 shows the critical values for PMCCThe value of r obtained was compared with the critical value from Table 4 at 5% significance level.r = 0.899 0.811 (critical value) at 5% significance levelAn analysis using PMCC demonstrated a statistically significant negative linear relationship between concentration of vitamin C and germination percentage since calculated r value was greater than the critical value at 5% significance level.Therefore, null hypothesis can be rejected.(2093 words)Data analysisBased on the data collected in Table 2, it was shown that low concentration of vitamin C did promote germination of choy sum to a authorized extent. The statistical analysis using PMCC further verified the correlation. The table alike revealed that only low concentration of vitamin C was needed to h asten germination since under 10% concentration, seeds germinated at a lower rate (66%). represent 1 illustrates clearly the general trend and relationship between the variables, the lower the concentration of vitamin C, the lower the germination rate of choy sum. The highest germination rate (96%) was recorded by seeds sown in 1% vitamin C concentration which was the lowest concentration used.However, it can be seen that the line is fluctuating downwards and there is a linear graph showing that the values obtained were due to certain errors that lead to some anomalous results. At 5% concentration of vitamin C, we can see that the germination rate is slightly higher than that of 2.5% but it is not supposed to be so.Some of errors that may occur during experiment areMixing error when preparing solutions of different concentrations by serial dilution.The thickness of cotton layer in germinating tray may not be unbroken passim the tray so vitamin C solution with thinner cotton layer may get evaporated faster thus absorption of solution is less for the seed in that traySome of seeds may have been initially damaged so germination may not happen(2342 words)The germination percentage was compared with the result from other print academic journals. The germination percentage against day graph below shows the results from journal titled Effect of vitamin C and folic acid on seed vigour response and phenolic resin-linked antioxidant activity from showtime 12. It shows that the optimum concentration of vitamin C for pea seed to germinate is 500micromol/dm3.Using appropriate calculations, it can be calculated that 10% concentration is approximately equal to 500micromol/dm3.9 Thus, the germination percentage of pea seed in 10% concentration is highest compared to other concentrations. However, the result I obtained for highest germination percentage for Brassica parachinensis was different. This can be due to some errors and limitations occurred during experiment or the fact that they are of different types of seed which is further discussed in limitation and modification part.In this experiment, the constant or controlled variable is the use of distilled water (0% concentration). Since the results showed that the difference between germination rate between 0% and 1% concentration was very small (only about 8%), this indicated that the effect of vitamin C on seed vigour may be too little. Even though the effect is little, it cannot be denied that this little help from vitamin C can give a broad impact on agricultural sector as it is able to promote seed germination therefore improving mass production of plants rather than watering seeds with water only.(2577 words)EvaluationSeeds are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses during germination. Oxidative stress for example, caused by the production of high level of reactive oxygen intermediates such as O2, O2-, H2O2, and HO- can lead to the destruction of cells.4 front end of low concent ration of exogenous vitamin C stimulates seed vigour as it minimises aerophilous stress by scavenging these reactive oxygen species.Many oxidants contain an unpaired electron so they are highly reactive. These free ascendants are damaging because they can interact with other molecules resulting in a unscathed chain of free basis reactions. Ascorbate can terminate these chained radical reactions by serving as a stable (electron + proton) donor in interactions with free radicals.4However, high concentration of vitamin C solution inhibits seed germination because as solution becomes more concentrated, more water from cells diffuse out causing cellular membrane leakage.3Besides that, being a good electron donor, excess ascorbate in the presence of free metal ions can not only promote, but also initiate free radical reactions, thus making it a potentially dangerous pro-oxidative compound in certain metabolic contexts.8 We hypothesize that whether vitamin C has a net pro oxidant or an tioxidant effect depends on the concentration of vitamin C solution.8With relation to improvingseed vigourthrough stimulation ofphenolicsynthesis, it has been suggested that exogenously utilisephenolic antioxidants may be able to stimulate endogenousphenoliccontent in plants(Randhir and Shetty, 2003andRandhir et al., 2002).Due to its inherentantioxidantpotential, vitamin C seems to be a suitable growth regulator in increasingseed vigour and phenolicelicitation. In this study, we have hypothesized that the treatment of plants withvitamin Cas exogenousseed treatments may result in an increase in both biochemical and traditional agronomic indicators ofseed vigour.11(2873 words)Limitations and modificationsOne of the limitations in this experiment is the changing surrounding temperature. The seeds were left in laboratory room where the temperature may fluctuate over time. This may affect the germinating time of the seeds and the number of germinated seed after 36 hours. Besides tempera ture, humidity and light intensity were also uncontrolled. Since all seeds were exposed to the same environmental factors, the result is considered to be reliable.Besides that, some seeds may have been initially damaged before soaking or sowing. Therefore, vitamin C solution may not be the actual cause of inhibition of seed germination. The seeds are chosen only by physical measures such as similarity in size, shape and saturation and seed coat is not broken.However, limitations can be overcome by using a large number of seeds and the experiment is repeated for a few times to ensure that result obtained is reliable and enough to support conclusion. This investigation tests only on the effectiveness of vitamin C solution on seed germination without exposing seeds to other biotic stress such as salinity or abiotic stress such as exposure to sunlight.Modifications could be made by introducing a biotic or abiotic stress to the seed and observe if vitamin C still stimulates seed germina tion or other. Different types of seed may have different result with vitamin C solution. So, using seeds from one type of plant may not be able to indicate how vitamin C actually acts on seed. As vitamin C may enhance seed vigour in certain species, it could do otherwise to other species. Hence, the same experiment should be done to seeds from other species to see how they are affected by vitamin C solution.ConclusionThe lower the concentration of vitamin C, the higher the germination rate of Brassica parachinensis seeds. This is due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C which acts against the oxidative stress. The optimum vitamin C concentration for seed germination is 1%.(3200 words) root EvaluationI have referred to various sources in conducting my research. bugs 1, 2, 3 and 4 are from Wikipedia which has been the largest and most popular generalreference workon theinternet. Although many have doubts over its reliability as it can be edited by anyone with access to the sit e but it is cited and linked to many other literatures and academic researches around the globe. Source 5 is a website compose by health experts on health and medicine. Source 6 is a website that provides information written by university scholars with reference to other academic researches. Source 7 is reliable as it is written byDr. Bryan D. McKersie ofUniversityofGuelph and is posted on the internet in 1996. Source 8 is a reliable source as it is an article by The American Society for Nutritional Sciences and was published in The Journal of Nutrition website in 2004. Source 9 has been a referral site to many people around the world. The information seems reliable as it is written by experts.Source 10 is a published phonograph recording thus the information is reliable.Source 11 is a journal from ScienceDirect which I have accessed from my campus library. ScienceDirect is a leading full-text scientific database offering journal articles and maintain chapters from more than 2,50 0 peer-reviewed journals and more than 11,000 books. There are currently more than 9.5 one thousand million articles/chapters, a content base that is growing at a rate of almost 0.5 million additions per year. It is operated by the publisher Elsevier. Source 12 is a journal advised by an international Editorial Board and is negligent or indexed by various research databases like the EBSCO and Elsevier. Source 13 is an article from the Journal of Biological Chemistry.