Thursday, December 26, 2019

Organizational Behaviour Essay - 1091 Words

Organizational Behaviour Organizational Behaviour Organizations have been described as groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose. This definition clearly indicates that organizations are not buildings or pieces of machinery. Organizations are, indeed, people who interact to accomplish shared objectives. The study of organizational behaviour (OB) and its affiliated subjects helps us understand what people think, feel and do in organizational settings. For managers and, realistically, all employees, this knowledge helps predict, understand and control organizational events. There are three determinants of behaviour in order to make an organization more effective: individual,†¦show more content†¦To be ethical requires treating others -- customers and employees -- properly and fairly. A company that is interested in growth and profits must establish relationships with customers and employees based on trust. Improvement of the employer-employee relationship is important to both p arties for several reasons. First, employee productivity increases when employers treat their employees with more respect. Second, employees may find that increased ethical behaviour on their part actually results in higher compensation. For example, many companies are involved in relationship marketing, which is the process of creating and maintaining long-term relationships with customers. Relationship marketing, which can help a company increase its profits, requires the cooperation of employees. Employees that perform their jobs conscientiously and diligently are frequently rewarded with higher wages. Third, even if there is no material gain, ethically appropriate behaviour provides a sense of self-satisfaction. Therefore, it is advantageous for every organization to maintain high ethical standards and thereby foster trust between a company and its employees. Virtually all studies of employee satisfaction show that influencing employee attitudes is more affectively done by local managers and supervisors than byShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Behavior And Organizational Behaviour1644 Words   |  7 PagesThe above drawn figure shows about organisational behaviour. It highlights the bonding among human behaviour in organizational settings, the individual - organization interface, the organization, the environment surrounding the organization. In an organization each and every individual brings its own experience, managerial and effective skills. Classical Organizational theory:- Popovich (2010) said that in this theory, the concentration mainly goes in how an organization can be structured inRead MoreOrganizational Behaviour1455 Words   |  6 PagesIf you were CEO what would you change and why - provide your recommendation with a Before and After Organizational chart. - If you are not working at this time - use a past employer. Ans 1. Table of Content * Introduction * Discussion * Complete assessment of the company I work for – M. Muhammad Shafi amp; Co. * What would I change as the CEO and why * Organizational Charts, Before and After. * Bibliography Introduction Change is very important for any organizationRead Moreorganizational behaviour1261 Words   |  6 Pages Organizational Behavior MG6013 The exploration of the theories, research and practices that allow a better understanding of human behavior in organizations. Topics include motivation and job satisfaction; decision making; group dynamics; work teams; leadership; communication; power, politics and conflict; organization culture, structure and design; impact of technology; management of work stress; organizational change andRead MoreOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words   |  115 Pagesconfusion, also goes under several different names, some of which you will encounter when reading texts on the subject. The two main areas are generally called Human Resource Management (HRM) and Organisational Behaviour (OB), but the field is also sometimes called Organisational Analysis (OA), Behaviour in Organisations (BinO), Organisation Studies (OS), and a host of other names, including the practitioner area called Organisational Development (OD). There are, in fact, subtle nuances and variations inRead MoreOrganizational Behaviour Issues1427 Words   |  6 PagesFinal Report- Organizational Behavior â€Å"Issues in Organizational Behaviour based on own experiences† Student No. Structure: 1. Introduction 2. Main Body and Recommendations 3. Conclusion 4. References What is Organizational Behaviour? Organizational Behaviour is nothing else than developing our understanding and development of people skills. A multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding individual and group behaviour, interpersonal process and organizational dynamics. DifferentRead MoreEssay about Organizational Behaviour1051 Words   |  5 Pagescom My essay will introduce the culture and organizational strategies of I focus on the evolution of, the organization culture with the Scheins three levels of culture, the truth of working on Amazon, why is amazon so successful on the basis of organizational strategies and how to improve in the original basis. Organizational culture could be the core of the company and exists from the start of Organizational culture is the shared values, beliefs, and normsRead MoreThe Development Of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour3154 Words   |  13 Pages2001). Out of this comes the development of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). OCB represents â€Å"individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognised by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization† (Organ 1988, p. 4). The study of OCB has become increasingly important as the prevalence, importance, and costs of counterproductive, or deviant, behaviour in the workplace have been increasingly recognisedRead MoreOrganizational Behaviour And Communication Issues Essay1452 Words   |  6 Pages1.0 INTRODUCTION In this case-study for Electra Products’, I will be addressing relevant, organisational behaviour and communication issues that must be addressed in order to â€Å"revive the failing company† (Samson, 2012). Specific recommendations will be offered to further assist in focusing on the key outlined issues and what actions would be most appropriate to take from this point. Throughout the report, it is clear the attitudes of staff are becoming unfavourable and has resulted in a lack ofRead MoreRoot Metaphors as an Aid to Understanding Organizational Behaviour3097 Words   |  13 PagesRobert Allen 11500024 Root metaphors as an aid to understanding organizational behaviour and their relevance to organizations in a knowledge based economy. Introduction The use of root metaphors to provide insight into organizations seems to be seen as a useful if limited way of understanding their complex natures (Morgan, 1997) (Andriesson, 2008), which may have been more suited to the industrial age. The rise of the Knowledge Based Economy (KBE) and post-industrial organizations pose furtherRead MoreOrganizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) Essay1796 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿What is organizational citizenship? Explain the links between the various types of organizational citizenship behaviors and job-related outcomes. In what ways does organizational citizenship affect organizational performance? Illustrate with examples where appropriate. Organizational Citizenship Organizational citizenship is an organizational success that consists of supports from the volunteers of individuals and behavior (Business Dictionary 2013). Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB)

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Use of Imagery in the First Two Acts of Macbeth - 1585 Words

â€Å"The Scottish Play†, or more known as â€Å"Macbeth† is a play set in medieval Scotland. It describes the life of Macbeth – a brave lord predicted by the witches to become the King of Scotland. Lady Macbeth, his wife powered by ambition influences Macbeth into committing a horrendous regicide. Imagery is used widely throughout the course of the play, creating a three-dimensional image of the actions, almost as if we were present. Shakespeare in â€Å"Macbeth† uses imagery to create a more detailed image and emphasize the themes of violence, murder and darkness. The omnipresent imagery of darkness evokes the sentiments of fear, danger and death. â€Å"Come thick night, and pall thee in the dunnest smoke in hell† associates the darkness of the night†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Boneless gums† represents innocence and vulnerability, evoking feelings of pity. This is destroyed with the use of â€Å"plucked†, â€Å"dashed† which have are full of violence and threat. This description frightens the audience, leaving it in shock. The tone of the author is bloodthirsty, full of gore. Imagery of death is well portrayed in the quotation â€Å"hear it not, Duncan, for it is knell that summons thee to heaven or to hell.† An image of the bell is used to show imminent death of the king. The bell is portrayed as the funeral bell that will â€Å"summon† Duncan to â€Å"heaven or to hell†. â€Å"Summon† has the connotations of summoning to court, which could stand for the judging of God. The desc ription creates suspense and increases tension. The tone is ominous and frightening. The night of murder â€Å"strange screams of death and prophesying with accents terrible† were heard. â€Å"Strange† and â€Å"terrible† suggest the violence of the murder. Sibilance â€Å"strange screams† create auditory imagery of hissing, whispering, which suggests danger and evil. The audience gets a sense of unease and the tension is increased. The murder is predicted in â€Å"the raven himself is hoarse that croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan†. â€Å"Raven† is a sign of ill omen, death, graveyards, which implies a terrible deed that will be done. â€Å"Croaks† has connotation of aShow MoreRelatedImagery of Blood, Light and Clothing in Macbeth by William Shakespeare540 Words   |  3 PagesImagery of Blood, Light and Clothing in Macbeth by William Shakespeare Imagery, the art of making images, the product of imagination (Merriam- Webster). Shakespeare uses many forms of imagery in his writing of Macbeth. Three main forms of imagery in this play are blood, light and darkness, and clothing. Within each form of this imagery Shakespeare incorporates symbols that the reader must understand if they are to interpret either the passage or the play as a whole. In Macbeth blood symbolizesRead MoreMacbeth - Imagery in Macbeth1331 Words   |  6 Pagess plays he uses many forms of imagery. Imagery, the art of making images, the products of imagination. In the play Macbeth Shakespeare applies the imagery of clothing, darkness and blood. (listed from least to most), Each detail is his imagery, it seems to contain an important symbol of the play. Symbols that the reader must understand if they are to interpret either the passage or the play as a whole. Within the play Macbeth the imagery of clothing portrays that Macbeth is seeking toRead MoreEssay on Images, Imagery, Symbols, and Symbolism in Macbeth1723 Words   |  7 PagesImagery and Symbolism in Macbeth  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   With its eye-opening plot and interesting cast of characters, William Shakespeare’s play, Macbeth is one of the greatest works one could ever read. But, above all, the aspect of the play is most impressive and overwhelming with imagery and symbolism that Shakespeare so brilliantly uses. Throughout the play, the author depicts various types of imagery and symbolism instances that, eventually, lead to the downfall of the main character, Macbeth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Read MoreThe Classification Of Water Imagery Present Throughout Shakespeare s Macbeth Essay1134 Words   |  5 PagesShakespeare is renowned for his vividly descriptive, original, and pioneering use of imagery in many of his plays, but their effect on the audience’s understanding of his plays is most obvious in the tragedies, particularly in Macbeth. Images in Shakespeare’s works are used, according to Shakespeare critic G. Wilson Knight, to craft a play’s â€Å"atmosphere† or the permeating tone or mood of a play (3). However, this attitude between images and atmosphere creates an environment where different definitionsRead More Imagery In Macbeth Essay example1406 Words   |  6 Pages Response to â€Å"Macbeth† 2. How does Shakespeare’s use of imagery and recurring symbols add depth and meaning to the plot and characters in the play? In all of Shakespeares plays he uses many forms of imagery. Imagery is the art of making images, the products of imagination. In the play Macbeth Shakespeare applies the imagery of clothing, darkness and blood. Each detail is his imagery, seems to contain an important symbol of the play, symbols that the audience must understand if they are to interpretRead More Images and Imagery in Macbeth Essays1474 Words   |  6 PagesImagery in Macbeth  Ã‚     Ã‚   Shakespeare uses a variety of techniques in order to add depth and the underlying subtext within his plays. Macbeth is no exception, he uses the stark imagery of clothing, the sickening physicality of blood and the concept of darkness to communicate a number of themes.   In turn this conveys important symbols that can be found within the play.    Within Macbeth the imagery of clothing portrays how Macbeth is seeking to hide his disgraceful self from hisRead MoreImagery in Macbeth by William Shakespeare1172 Words   |  5 PagesImagery in Macbeth William Shakespeare use of imagery creates a picture in the mind of his audiences that tells a thousand words. In most of his literary work, he shows the importance of imagery, and how authors can manipulate a readers feelings towards a character. In Macbeth, one of Shakespeare’s greatest plays, he shows his very skillfully uses imagery. Macbeth is one of the great tragedy themed plays by William Shakespeare. It’s about three witches that decide to manipulate a Scottish generalRead MoreImagery in Macbeth848 Words   |  4 PagesImagery in Macbeth â€Å"Violence and the bloodshed that results are important symbols in Shakespeare’s Macbeth. While the blood that is shed is a tangible reminder of the outcomes of misused power, it also serves as an image that provokes Macbeth to reflect upon his deeds, even if he does not change his behavior. Macbeth becomes obsessed with the blood on his hands. Unfortunately, this reminder of his guilt does not prevent him from continuing violent acts.† -Marshall Mc Luhan. Macbeth, one of theRead MoreDramatic Use of Images of Blood in William Shakespeares Macbeth1699 Words   |  7 PagesDramatic Use of Images of Blood in William Shakespeares Macbeth Macbeth is the story of a nobleman, who, while trying to fulfil a prophecy told to him by three witches, murders his king to cause his ascension to the throne of Scotland. After the Kings death, Macbeth reigns as a cruel and ruthless tyrant who is forced to kill more people to keep control of the throne. Finally, Scottish rebels combined with English forces attack Macbeths castle. A Scottish thane namedRead MoreThe Use Of Imagery In Macbeth1428 Words   |  6 PagesImagery is defined as a vehicle to represent objects, ideas, and actions using figurative language, in a way that appeals to our physical senses, Shakespeare was an expert at employing this technique in his works, with one of his most famous and renowned, Macbeth, using this device to perfection. Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, illustrating the psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Shakespeare utilizes imagery numerous times throughout

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Corporate Governance Crucial for Family Firms

Question: In a recent commentary on governance in family firms, a leading executive search consultancy argued, Corporate governance is a critical enabling factorfor the development of family-owned businesses.In your opinion, does that comment accurately reflect the significance of corporate governance to large family firms anxious to develop internationally or does the comment exaggerate the significance of corporate governance? Answer: As in a recent commentary on governance within family-owned businesses, a leading consultancy that searches for executive had argued that corporate governance is a critical enabling factor for the development of family-owned businesses. This report provides a deep insight into the given statement and whether the comment reflects accurately upon the significance of corporate governance to large family-based firms eager to develop internationally or it exaggerates the significance of corporate governance. The concept of corporate governance is at times misinterpreted as the key domain of big organizations with increased shares traded as per the global stock exchange. The need for effective corporate governance is quite more significant for small family-based businesses. One of the key strategic benefits of a family business is that of its bloodline. Family businesses, when run by few family members who are knit together firmly, can actually progress faster than any other bureaucracies can. These are the backbone of several economies across the globe, and their sustainability is crucial for the increased economic growth. Most of the biggest corporations around the world had begun and run by family dynasties. In fact some of the largest public-listed firms are family-owned. As per the statistics, around 70% of businesses within GCC are family-owned or even controlled. Hence, they play key roles in the economic development apart from own business contributions to create an environment of investment that is safe, open, transparent, and safe. Corporate Governance: Crucial for Family firms Effective governance refers to the concept of generating a sense of direction, values of working of living, and well structured policies that direct organizational members the right behavior and attitude to be executed at situations or certain circumstances. Some of the policies that form part of corporate governance are recruitment policies, promotion policies, emergency policies, and debt policies. The principles of corporate governance bring together the right individuation at right time to discuss the right things. The world of family business gives a joint mixture of business, ownership and family concerns which charge up the entire system of environments emotionally to plan as well as sole organizational issues. In such systems, one must manage problems in and across three groups that overlap: the business, the family, and the ownership group. Such overlap often causes difference in perspectives amidst individuals based on their location in all three circles. Perspectives may v ary among those family shareholders who are not employed within the business and that of those relative owners working within the business. for effective management of the business, ownership as well as family concerns need effective communication as well as decision-making in and across the family, the ownership, and the business groups. Ever-increasing goals as well as globalization have developed more challenges for businesses that are family-oriented. As per researches it has been identified that corporate governance acts as an enabling factor towards the development of family-businesses. Thorough practice of effective governance allows these businesses to develop robust business processes as well as prepare themselves for the future expansion. The concept of corporate governance creates the basic foundation for businesses that are family-based to act more accountably and be more transparent to their operations. This would lead to good opportunities for sustainable growth, enhanced performance and profitability. All GCC family firms are increasingly becoming aware of the rising significance of corporate governance; however for still some business firms, the concern is not yet the priority. As business ownership shifts from one generation to another, the potential drivers for improving governance as well as transpa rency are related to the objective to develop as well as pass on a healthy as well as efficient business firm to the successive generation. As stated in the statement, research evidences exist is favor of the given statement that corporate governance acts as a crucial enabling factor for development of family-businesses. The statement can be greatly complied with as with the increase in growth as well as globalization, several challenges have been imposed for family-oriented businesses and most of these challenges can be managed with adoption of sound as well as effective structures of corporate governance. With the expansion of family-business, the relationship amidst the business owners, managers, and employees gets more complex. For managing all the concerning issues, an effective corporate governance system must be in place with right policies for managing all complexities. Corporate governance develops a potential organizational structure which clarifies objectives, report lines, and also delegate responsibilities. It even draws a line midst the ownership and that of the management and separate direction of policies from regular operations of the firm. Successful business firms are the outcome of the hard work as well as dedication for years. Also there is a need to ensure that leadership transition may not disrupt the growth of the firm. For passing the success to the next generation, concept of corporate governance must be made an integral part of the culture of the family business so as to ensure distinct policies to select the right member from the family to take over. The corporate governance would provide distinct guidelines to employ family or non-family members along with promotion of employees based on performance that is vital to incorporate business sustainability. An effective governance system enables resolution of conflicts in the family set up, thus enabling the family members to emphasis upon important business issues. This often leads to an open process of decision-making which ensures impartiality. The tool of corporate governance prevents tension and also raises the firm business reputation. The following corporate governance principles are to be followed within the family-business: Effective shareholder recognition acts as the key step to maintain stock prices of a firm. Often, small shareholders having little impact upon the stock price are made aside to give way to the major shareholders interest and that of executive board. Sound corporate governance ensures that all stakeholders get equal right and voice at meetings and equal opportunity for participation. Stakeholder interests must be identified by the corporate governance. Specifically, taking out time for the non-shareholder stakeholders may enable creation of positive relationship with the press as well as community. Board responsibilities are to be distinctly outlined to all major shareholders. They must share the same vision to realize the successful future of the company. Ethical behavior violation for gaining increased profits may cause severe problems to the firm. For this a definite code of conduct is maintained for all organizational members. Business transparency is essential for ensuring shareholder trust. Earnings or financial records are to be presented without any exaggeration. Hence, corporate governance strengthens as well as clarifies the functionalities of family members while enhancing the overall competitiveness. Transparency of responsibilities as well as proper functioning of all corporate organs is in the interest of owners, stakeholders, and the whole business firm. It is quite important that within family business, the roles as well as responsibilities of the owners, executives are distinct and approved. Family-based businesses use the tool of corporate governance in a particular manner. Here, mutually-agreed practices of corporate governance as an effective tool to develop as well as control business activities. The owners are usually aware of their roles and impacts. Corporate governance of family businesses that is defined clearly creates additional value to operations of external stakeholders like that of financial or investment processes. The importance of corporate governance within the family businesses can be supported further with some highlights upon the significance of the concept in such business undertakings. The structures as well as institutions of all family governance need some level of formalization so as to function effectively. When family adopt policies upon the approach of the family towards business as well as to govern the business, the members would formalize all efforts with documents which will differ based upon ownership business stage. It has been identified from research that family businesses recognize the lack of governance structure of a family which may be one of the greatest causes of conflict, specifically in terms of succession. Successful businesses are the outcome of years of hard work as well as dedication. Corporate governance must be a part of the culture of the family business so that successful businesses are passed on from one generation to another. This is specifically signific ant in case of owner-managed firms whereby owner-manager must define his future engagement into the daily operations of the business, whether to pass on the business to family member or a partner, or even exit through public listing. The concept of family ownership is often regarded as an opportunity or even a threat, based upon various factors. The ownership of the family member as well as commitment towards business can be referred to as adding of value, only if the firm along with the controlling members can respond to the various concerns of the community of investors. Shareholders as well as creditors often may intervene with distrust upon the family-managed firms, due to the risk which such family may abuse the rights of other shareholders. It is a common idea that investors would scrutinize those firms with care prior to investing into it. From the perspective of an investor, the key issue is to develop the perfect corporate governance factors and conditions so as to couple t he positive aspects of family ownership along with assurances about the fact that the investments of the investors would be suitably and favorably recognized as well as addressed. In case of family businesses, the governance is often a complicated aspect than that of non-family businesses due to the central role of the family which owns as well as typically heads the business. Therefore, governance is the most important requisite in case of family businesses. In such businesses or other forms of enterprises involving family investment funds or foundations, the key issue is the lack of effective governance. It has been identified through researches that all those businesses that successfully improved governance reaped lasting benefits. With respect to the corporate governance in business firms, an aspect that is to be highlighted here is that the absence of proper sound governance is not confined to small firms only. Even in case of large firms, the family business may lead to painful turmoil while dismissing the family chairman. Such dismissal may seem abrupt to him and family allies. Effective governance in family businesses adds basic ingredients for such businesses to operate in the following manner: Clarity on rights, roles, and responsibilities for members of all three circles Motivating family members, owners, business employees for acting responsibly Regulating perfect owner as well as family inclusion within business discussions. It may be intensely argued upon that application of effective governance principles would reduce the issues related to information asymmetry, and render less risk to towards investment into the business as corporate governance has been a global acceptance and considered a legal system as well as sound approaches based on which organizations are directed as well as controlled, thereby emphasizing upon the internal as well as external structures with the intention to monitor the actions of management for mitigating the risks imposed by the misdeeds of corporate superiors. The measures of corporate governance which family businesses may adopt will vary, based upon the stage to control the ownership of the family. This may often highlight the demerits of corporate governance. For large family firms that aim at expanding internationally, the corporate governance would act as an effective mechanism to deal with numerous problems nationally and internationally. From the above study, it is c lear that corporate governance is an important aspect for any business firm, be in family businesses or non-family businesses. The comment which has been made that corporate governance is a critical enabling factor for the development of family-owned businesses thus accurately reflect the significance of corporate governance to large business firm that aim at developing internationally. When a business firm conducts all its operations and deliverances in a controlled manner with the advent of corporate governance, the extent of the success of the firm becomes higher. Thorough practice of effective governance allows these businesses to develop robust business processes as well as prepare themselves for the future expansion. The concept of corporate governance creates the basic foundation for businesses that are family-based to act more accountably and be more transparent to their operations. This would lead to good opportunities for sustainable growth, enhanced performance and profitability. With the entering of the Middle East into a new growth phase as well as integration in a close manner with the world ec onomy, firms that are family-oriented and have been ignoring corporate governance are likely to lose competitive advantage in the near future. Family-based firms are some of the most successful firms across the globe; however these must incorporate corporate governance at a high standard, and best practices of international level should be applied to domestic as well as regional firms for competing with several multinationals that enter the market. Some of the key benefits include improved access to opportunities and also attracting foreign investment as well as potential talent. References Arcot, Sridhar and Valentina Giulia Bruno, 'Do Standard Corporate Governance Practices Matter In Family Firms?'SSRN Journal Aguilera, Ruth V. and Rafel Crespi-Cladera, 'Firm Family Firms: Current Debates Of Corporate Governance In Family Firms' (2012) 3Journal of Family Business Strategy Arora, Nikhil and Jyoti P. Gupta, 'Do Family-Held Firms Have Weak Corporate Governance?'SSRN Journal Carney, Michael, 'Corporate Governance And Competitive Advantage In Family-Controlled Firms' (2005) 29Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice Chen, En-Te, Stephen Gray and John Nowland, 'Family Representatives In Family Firms' (2012) 21Corporate Governance: An International Review Chen, Yugang, Wenjing Li and Karen Jingrong Lin, 'Cumulative Voting: Investor Protection Or Antitakeover? Evidence From Family Firms In China' [2014]Corporate Governance: An International Review Cucculelli, Marco and Francesco Marchionne, 'Market Opportunities And Owner Identity: Are Family Firms Different?' (2012) 18Journal of Corporate Finance Fu, Liang, Ran Lu-Andrews and Yin Yu, 'Liquidity And Corporate Governance: Evidence From Family Firms'SSRN Journal Gonzalez, Maximiliano et al, 'Corporate Governance Mechanisms In Family Firms: Evidence From CEO Turnovers'SSRN Journal Isakov, Duan and Jean-Philippe Weisskopf, 'Pay-Out Policies In Founding Family Firms' [2015]Journal of Corporate Finance Latrous, Imen and Samir Trabelsi, 'Do Family Firms Use More Or Less Debt?' (2012) 3IJCG Matias Gama, Ana Paula and Jorge Manuel Mendes Galvo, 'Performance, Valuation And Capital Structure: Survey Of Family Firms' (2012) 12Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society Matias Gama, Ana Paula and Ceclia Rodrigues, 'The Governanceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Performance Relations In Publicly Listed Family Controlled Firms: An Empirical Analysis' (2013) 13Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society Piesse, Jenifer, Igor Filatotchev and Yung-Chih Lien, 'Corporate Governance In Family-Controlled Firms In Taiwan' (2007) 54International Review of Economics Pindado, Julio, Ignacio Requejo and Chabela Torre, 'Do Family Firms Use Dividend Policy As A Governance Mechanism? Evidence From The Euro Zone' (2012) 20Corporate Governance: An International Review Shea, Hubert, 'Review Article - Family Firms: Controversies Over Corporate Governance, Performance, And Management'SSRN Journal Spanos, Loukas J., 'Corporate Governance Rating Of Family Firms At The Athens Exchange Market' (2008) 34Managerial Finance Spanos, Loukas, Lena Tsipouri and Manolis Xanthakis, 'Corporate Governance Rating Of Family Firms At The Athens Exchange Market'SSRN Journal Swamy, Vighneswara, 'Corporate Governance In Family Owned Small Firms'SSRN Journal Tsatsoulis, Ektor, 'Corporate Governance And Corporate Social Responsibility In Family Owned Firms: A Case Study Of A Greek Shipping Company'SSRN Journal.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Monetary Policy free essay sample

Monetary policy is the process by which the Monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting a rate of interest for the purpose of promoting economic growth and stability. Fiscal Policy is government spending policies that influence macroeconomic conditions. These policies affect tax rates, interest rates and government spending, in an effort to control the economy. How is the Monetary Policy different from the Fiscal Policy? The Monetary Policy regulates the supply of money and the cost and availability of credit in the economy. It deals with both the lending and borrowing rates of interest for commercial banks. The Monetary Policy aims to maintain price stability, full employment and economic growth. The Fiscal Policy can be used to overcome recession and control inflation. It may be defined as a deliberate change in government revenue and expenditure to influence the level of national output and prices. INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Monetary Policy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Bank Rate of Interest 2. Cash Reserve Ratio 3. Statutory Liquidity Ratio 4. Open market Operations 5. Margin Requirements 6. Deficit Financing 7. Issue of New Currency 8. Credit Control Bank Rate of Interest It is the interest rate which is fixed by the RBI to control the lending capacity of Commercial banks . During Inflation , RBI increases the bank rate of interest due to which borrowing power of commercial banks reduces which thereby reduces the supply of money or credit in the economy . When Money supply Reduces it reduces the purchasing power and thereby curtailing Consumption and lowering Prices. Cash Reserve Ratio CRR, or cash reserve ratio, refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to keep/maintain with the RBI. During Inflation RBI increases the CRR due to which commercial banks have to keep a greater portion of their deposits with the RBI . This serves two purposes. It ensures that a portion of bank deposits is totally risk-free and secondly it enables that RBI control liquidity in the system, and thereby, inflation. Statutory Liquidity Ratio Banks are required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) requirements . If SLR increases the lending capacity of commercial banks decreases thereby regulating the supply of money in the economy. Open market Operations It refers to the buying and selling of Govt. securities in the open market . During inflation RBI sells securities in the open market which leads to transfer of money to RBI. Thus money supply is controlled in the economy. Margin Requirements During Inflation RBI fixes a high rate of margin on the securities kept by the public for loans . If the margin increases the commercial banks will give less amount of credit on the securities kept by the public thereby controlling inflation. Deficit Financing It means printing of new currency notes by Reserve Bank of India . If more new notes are printed it will increase the supply of money thereby increasing demand and prices. Thus during Inflation, RBI will stop printing new currency notes thereby controlling inflation. Fiscal Policy It refers to the Revenue and Expenditure policy of the Govt. which is generally used to cure recession and maintain economic stability in the country. The term fiscal policy refers to the expenditure and taxation policy of the government, which can influence economic activity by its expenditure program and imposing or lifting taxation on certain goods and services. Fiscal policy aims at raising financial resources through taxation and borrowing within the country and from abroad. Objectives of the Fiscal Policy Promotion of Economic Development and Growth Mobilization of Resources Reduction of Inequality of Income Expansion of Employment Price Stability Instruments of Fiscal Policy 1. Reduction of Govt. Expenditure 2. Increase in Taxation 3. Imposition of new Taxes 4. Wage Control 5. Rationing 6. Public Debt 7. Increase in savings 8. Maintaining Surplus Budget

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

buy custom Transactional Model of Communication essay

buy custom Transactional Model of Communication essay Communication is an act of passing information from one person to another. It is important, therefore, that one ensures that the receiver is in a position to get the message (Balmud 2008, pp. 47-52). The feedback one gets from the receiver makes it easy to know whether effective communication has occurred. We communicate during all our life, sometimes even without knowing it. Several obstacles may arise in the process of communication. These include anxiety, lack of preparation, and sexual harassment among others. Life is full of such situations. Many people will experience such scenarios at least once in a while (Schramm 1954, pp. 5-15). Most of human beings feel that it is easy to communicate; people feel that they are always able to make good communication to the people around. Unfortunately, it is not that easy. Communication needs a lot of preparation (Schramm 1954, pp. 5-15). People should be ready to communicate even in very difficult moments. Still, they must never assume tha t they have been able to communicate what they wanted to. As such, persons should be ready to evaluate the feedback from the recipients. A good feedback should be what they must use to determine how good they are in communication. Description of the situation In my experience, I have been in places, where I have wanted to convey a certain message but was unable to. Sometimes, I have been disappointed, when several people want to convey certain messages, very crucial, but are interrupted in the course of doing so. About a month ago, I went to a certain restaurant within the city. I wanted to do deliveries for vegetables, and also get the payment for earlier deliveries. I found out that the management had changed and new people had been put in place. Though, I had done this many months before, I was suddenly uneasy. The manager in charge of supplies was new to me. This meant that I had to give the details of who I was, why I wanted to see him. The meeting took a short time. Anxiety grew within me and I could not convey the necessary information with ease. After the session was over, the supply manager was suspicious of who I really was. He had many questions that he wanted me to answer in another session. Analysis of the situation Having been in the business for long, I had never figured out that management would change. I never prepared for changes, assuming that communication would always be easy. That specific day proved that I have never made good preparations as far as communication is concerned. Communication, as I had assumed, could have never been hindered. However, this was a wrong assumption. I needed to make ajustments even before I headed for the restaurant that specific day. However, I do believe that the manager would have given me the chance to explain all the information that he needed to know. I believe that he jumped into the conclusion of who I was. Having been very regular in the premises, as I explained to him, he would have taken his time to listen to me. However, that was not the case. He felt that I was not to be trusted as much as I explained myself to him. At the end of the day, I went home disappointed that I had not been able to gain trust from the manager. I also think that use of several words by the supplies management made it hard for me to communicate the message. He asked me why I had not been wise to consult him before I went into the premises. The use of the words not wise acted as a barrier for me. I felt that the words were incorrect. I could not use wrong words to counter the words, yet I had to communicate effectively. Faced with this, I withdrew much of the information I wanted to convey. Solution to the problem Following the poor communication that occurred that day, I had to get another session to convey the message that I meant to on that specific day. For one, I had to sit down and assess the situation in details. The recipient had not received the message after all. I, therefore, chose to do enough preparation for the next session. I wrote down the main points I wanted to convey and ensured that I mastered them. First, I had to explain who I was and the past experiences I had had with the restaurant. I also had to ensure that the message was brief, yet carried all the details of what exactly I wanted from the management. My attitude also had to change. I had to ensure that I should be ready to communicate, even in the place where the unexpected scenarios occurred. The other factor I had to consider was the fact that the audience had changed. This meant that the language had to change; I had to use a different approach this time. I had to present the information in a way that the supplies management could understand. It meant that several key words had to be used so that the message would be conveyed effectively. In the next session, communication was easy. The feedback was positive, thanks to the confidence I portrayed on the meeting. I was able to use correct words and was very keen to ensure that I was precise. The supplies manager was satisfied that I was the right person to continue delivering in their premises. More so, I was able to answer all the questions that the manager asked. I had anticipated some of the questions, while some were totally unexpected. However, coupled with confidence, I ga ve very satisfactoory answers. Communication calls for any given person to be accurate and precise (Balmud 2008, pp. 48-53). Some details need to be avoided, while others retained. This demands enough preparation and assessment of situation at hand. The audience also differs and must be handled differently. One must consider the exact words to use before even communicating to given audiences. In my case scenario, I was never prepared for a different audience. I did not have the exact words to approach the situation. The experience that one has had in communication may interfere with the ability of the person to make effective communication in future. This, then, calls for psychological preparation so that one is able to face the situation at hand in a whole different way. In my experience, I had to ensure that I would get to deal with the psychological problems that the experience created. I had to ensure that I was looking at the management without fear and anxiety. Other obstacles that can occur during communication include anger, sadness among other psychological barriers (Balmud 2008, pp. 47-52). In my situation, our communication occurs in face-to-face channel, and according to this channel I maynt able to hide my sudden reactions maybe anger by the managers choice of words. Remember Visual and Vocal codes are almost 70% of our communication. This would have meant loss of focus in the exact information I wanted to convey. I could also have used incorrect language and words in the very momen t of anger and disappointment. Another scenario would have been stereotypical attitudes from the management. He could have formed a wrong opinion on my personality, and as such fail to give me another opportunity to communicate effectively. All these barriers to communication must be addressed. The attitudes must change towards ensuring effective communication occurs. The noise levels must be minimal, and, at the same time, have the correct language to ensure effective communication occurs. Effective communication is far much more important than anything else in the world. To ensure that people get good feedback every time they are passing across any information is of great importance. It is important, therefore, to learn the dynamics of good communication. It is important to ensure that people will have received with gladness what others were communicating. I realized that poor communication is very expensive. I would have well lost the opportunity to make business transactions in future. I had to overcome the barriers that I was faced with so that communication was enhanced in the future. The easier any individual is able to overcome the obstacles, the easier for them to make progress in effective communication. Buy custom Transactional Model of Communication essay

Saturday, November 23, 2019

By the Same Token

By the Same Token By the Same Token By the Same Token By Maeve Maddox The word token is used with several meanings. From an Old English verb meaning â€Å"to show,† in the broadest sense a token is â€Å"something that serves to indicate a fact; a sign or a symbol.† The sign could be miraculous or merely evidence of something:    I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. Genesis, 9:13, KJV God granted these holy men [the 100 fed miraculously by Elisha] a gracious token that the famine had lifted The retiring employee received a watch as a token of the company’s appreciation. As a physical object, a token may be a metal or plastic disk that serves to show that money has been paid for transportation or admission (e.g., a bus token). Board games like Monopoly include tokens used in play. The expression â€Å"by the same token† means â€Å"for the same reason† or â€Å"in the same way.† Here are two correct examples of its use: there was little evidence to substantiate the gossip and, by the same token, there was little to disprove it –example, OxfordDictionaries because his mind is flexible it responds quickly †¦ to what is before it, and by the same token it can call up from within a host of appropriate ideas example, Merriam-Webster As is happening to many venerable expressions in this age of limited reading of traditional literature, â€Å"by the same token† is being altered by speakers who aren’t quite sure how to use it: However at the same token, this same conversation could apply to couples who go through that process together In the same token, it cannot disregard basic issues of translation theory. Does my body include the oxygen I am about to inhale and, on the same token, should I include the air I am about to exhale? Not only is the preposition by being incorrectly replaced by at, in or on, the meaning is being lost: I dont dislike dogs (or other animals), but by the same token, I dont want them in my house. Here the meaning seems to be â€Å"on the other hand.† With a documentation date of 1463, â€Å"by the same token† has had a good run in English. Could be that the expression–for some speakers at least–has reached retirement age. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Homograph Examples34 Writing Tips That Will Make You a Better WriterHonorary vs. Honourary

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Pschology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Pschology - Essay Example At the presynaptic nerve terminal, chemical neurotransmitters are discharged by neurons. The neurotransmitters’ movement achieves communication of information between neurons and cells across the small gap known as the synapse. Neurotransmitters vary in terms of their functions. Some of the chemical markers serve regulative, stimulatory, motive, and inhibitory roles. For instance, neurotransmitters are important in the regulatory processes of emotion and sensation. Therefore, their role in determining an individual’s behavior is expansive. Dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin are the most commonly cited neurotransmitters. Dopamine is typically discharged by naturally rewarding factors like sex and food. Along with stimulating effects, dopamine serves many additional  roles, such as  in behavior, learning, motivation, pleasure, sleep, sexual arousal, mood, movement, and attention. Likewise, the neurotransmitter serotonin regulates behavior and mood. Some facets of behavior that serotonin affects includes appetite, learning, sleep, and memory. With optimal levels, norepinephrine fosters a sense of wellbeing and a feeling of euphoria during stressful conditions. With excessive levels of norepinephrine, individuals can suffer physiological symptoms of fear and anxiety. From these three cases, one can clearly see that neurotransmitters greatly affect individual behaviors. For instance, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are each commonly correlated with symptoms of depression. If an organism’s body is an aircraft, the brain is analogous to the pilot. Besides serving as the root of consciousness and rationality, the brain is reducible to being the root of behavior. Like the control room of a power plant, the brain contains several areas for monitoring and regulating different behaviors. These brain regions include the cerebellum, the diencephalon, the brainstem, and the cerebrum. The cerebellum controls the body’s sense of bala nce and equilibrium. The frontal lobe of the cerebellum controls a large portion of an individual’s behaviors. Because this region conditions emotions, it plays a central role in the daily experiences of human beings. Likewise, the limbic system, which refers to brain structures such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala, also retains an important role in the regulation of motivation and emotion. The hypothalamus affects basic life functions. For instance, sleep, sexual drive, appetite, and stress reactions are all factors conditioned by the hypothalamus. The amygdala is located in the posterior lobes of the forebrain and causes emotional aggression as manifested by anger, fear, or disgust. Additionally, it is responsible for the effects of pheromones with regard to sexuality and reproduction. The orbitofrontal cortex, which is also a part of the frontal lobes of the brain, also affects many of those emotional reactions initiated in the amygdala. Disturbances in the limbic system will greatly affect an individual’s behavior and mood. Ultimately, the brainstem is the information center where all sensory input is filtered. The diencephalon contributes to this filtering of sensory information during the process of regulating pain sensation, thirst, hunger, and temperature sensitivity. The cerebrum is the largest region of the brain and retains an important role in transferring information between the two sides of the brains, in addition to regulating inhibitions, impulses, and judgments. Sensory processing is a

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

African American treatment by the police Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

African American treatment by the police - Essay Example Most African Americans, particularly those victimized by crime is a disproportionate manner, have little trust that the police would treat them in a fair manner. On the contrary, the population believes that law enforcement officials should treat all people equally regardless of their race, gender, or religious affiliation. This issue has attracted considerable attention, in different parts of the country based on the growing rates of victimization and exaggeration y the media in the United States (University of Texas, 2013). This paper will depict the issue of victimization of African American by law enforcement officials. It will also discuss how the media influences the perception of the public towards a criminal, and how media depiction of an incident affects individuals involved in a criminal activity. Researchers have revealed that a large number of black young men feel targeted by the police, particularly when driving or walking. In this case, they feel judged by stereotypes, which fuel resentment, hopelessness, and fear. Statistically, when targeting issues such as implementation of a drug policy, pulling individuals over, or implementing a death penalty, various racial disparities prevail. As such, just as most black Americans are influenced by crime in a disproportionate manner, the police equally scrutinize them unfairly (Fiducia Project, 2012). In 2010, for instance, African-Americans, representing 13% of the total population, accounted for about 55% gun homicides victims. These conflicting feelings have resulted to creation of incompatible policies. During the mid-1980s, a time when cocaine epidemic was dominant, tearing apart communities and families, and fueling murders, black lawmakers were on the forefront to facilitate in the establishment of laws that would help control the menace. This issue led

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Planning function of management for Boeing Essay Example for Free

Planning function of management for Boeing Essay The purpose of this paper is to explain the planning functions of management for the organization known as Boeing. Boeing is an aerospace company; they build passenger airplanes, military aircraft, satellites, and missiles. Boeings planning functions of management is influenced by internal and external factors. These factors such as the economy and competition directly influence the strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. Boeing is the largest manufacturer of satellites, commercial jetliners, and military aircraft in the world. The company is also a global market leader in missile defense, human space flight, and launch services. Chicago-based Boeing has an extensive global reach with customers in 145 countries. Boeing operates under the strictest principles of corporate governance. With 152,091 employees, Boeing posted 2004 revenues of $52.45 Billion.(FCSR, 2008)The state of the economy is a huge external factor of how the Boeing organization operates both, strategically and tactically. In 2001, the economy was hit hard and along with many other companys Boeing was suffering financially. Boeing was saved when they were offered a contract with U.S. Air force worth $49.2 billion (Advantage Business Media, 2007). Boeing also teamed up with Saudi Arabia Airlines in 1995 (Boeing, 2001). Boeings competition is another external factor that influences the organization both tactically and strategically. The company known as Airbus is Boeings biggest competition. Airbus is the leading manufacturer of commercial jets (Yahoo, 2008). Recently Boeing has been having internal issues affecting their assembly line and has cause a shortage in production which in turn has been affecting deadlines. With Boeing experiencing problems clients have been turning to Airbus to fulfill their needs. Lockheed Martin is Boeings biggest competition in defense systems (Yahoo, 2008).Currently; Boeing and Lockheed Martin are working together on some projects to help meet the high demand. The government is another factor that influences how the organization operates. Regulations affect the amount of output that Boeing can manufacture. When Boeing designs a new plane, before Boeing can test fly them they must first obtain a certificate issued by the U.S. Government; The  U.S. Government has designed this system of requirements to insure that each new plane is safe before the plane is flown. There are many safety requirements that must be met before the plane is approved to be flown; these requirements are enforced by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. These requirements affect the production of Boeings airplanes by causing a delay before the aircraft can be cleared for use. The planning function of management is affected by several legal issues. In 2005, a lawsuit was filed against Boeing. The lawsuit, filed in federal court in Kansas, alleges that Ducommuns Gardena plant made more than 1,900 defective parts used on at least 32 of Boeings airplanes, including 737s, 747s, 757s and 767s. The planes were delivered to the U.S. Air Force and Navy, as well as foreign military forces in Japan and Italy between March 1998 and November 2004. (Pae, 2005)The three employees who filed the lawsuit, were members of a Boeing audit team, contend that the parts did not conform to Federal Aviation Administration requirements. Boeing was aware of the problem but continued to sell the airplanes, falsely claiming that they were FAA approved, according to the lawsuit. The suit alleges that Ducommun kept two sets of books for manufacturing parts fake books for Boeing and the FAA and real books for itself. (Pae, 2005) Boeing is a company that is respected for cooperate social responsibility. Boeing has joined the Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibility, and is now entitled to display The Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibilitys Gold Seal of Approval as a Socially Responsible Company. (FCSR, 2008) The Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibility encourages corporations to be Socially Responsible, and to assist them in achieving commercial success in ways that respect ethical values, people in need, their communities and the environment. (FCSR, 2008)Boeing has a very strict code of ethics policy that is in place to protect both the corporations interest and the interest of its employees. Boeing employees are required to obey all aspects of the code of ethics set forth by the company. The code of ethics adopted complies with the standards set forth in the New York Stock Exchanges corporate governance rules. The Boeing Company will administer ethics and compliance programs to promote i ts commitment to integrity and values as set forth in the Boeing values and Code of Conduct and to ensure compliance with laws,  rules, and regulations. These programs will inform employees of company policies and procedures regarding ethical business conduct and help them to resolve questions and to report suspected violations. Managers are responsible for supporting implementation of ethics and business conduct programs, and monitoring compliance to the companys values and ethical business conduct guidelines through such programs. Managers are responsible for creating an open and honest environment in which employees feel comfortable in bringing issues forward. Retaliation against employees who raise genuine concerns will not be tolerated. (Boeing, 2008)All employees must sign and abide by the Boeing Code of Conduct, which requires that they understand the code, and ask questions, seek guidance, report suspected violations, and express concerns regarding compliance with this policy and the related procedures. (Boeing, 2008) To support the requirement for complete and accurate financial records and reporting, all employees of the Finance organization have an additional Code of Conduct for Finance. (Boeing, 2008)In Conclusion, There are several issues that can impact outcomes for management planning for the Boeing Company such as legal issues, ethical issues, and social responsibility, Along with factors can influence the companies planning operations both strategically, and tactically. The examples of these factors given in this paper are the economy, the government, and Boeings competitors such as Airbus. Even though Boeing has had its ups and downs from production problems to several legal issues Boeing has remained a globally known leader in their industry, respected for their cooperate social responsibility and known for their strong code of ethics. References Boeing. (2008). Ethics. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from (2008, February). Retrieved September 14, 2008, from Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibility: http://www.fcsr.plPae, p. (May, 2005). Boeing sued by three workers. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from, E. (2008, January 17). Airbus, Boeing Swamped by Orders. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from San Francisco Chronicle: http://www.sfgate.comYahoo. (2008, March). The Boeing Company Profile. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from Yahoo:

Friday, November 15, 2019

Bill Gates: The New Revolutionary Creator Essay -- Bill Gates Papers

Bill Gates The New Revolutionary Creator Introduction Throughout my journey in this honors seminar, I have read about several creators (in Creating Minds) who were pioneers or masters in their respective domains. Each of these creators (Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Ghandi) was researched by Howard Gardner who then classified each one as representing one of his seven intelligences (Intrapersonal, Logical/Mathematical, Visual/Spatial, Musical, Verbal/Linguistic, Kinesthetic, and Interpersonal). Interestingly, one of the main reasons he chose those particular individuals as representatives of each intelligence was due to the fact that they had all lived within a certain time period and had made some of their most significant breakthroughs in the early part of the 20th century. Their names and their work still live on today (even long after their deaths). They have been some of the most influential people whose works have helped to shape our perceptions of our art, music, literature, dance, ourselves, each other, and the very fabric of the universe itself. However, many critics of Gardner's work asked why he chose the people he did. "Why didn't he choose Beethoven for Musical or James Joyce for Verbal/Linguistic?" Now that our class has finished studying each of these creators, each one of us has the opportunity to research and write about a creator whom we think should be included in Gardner's book. While I recognize that there have been many creators from the past who could be included, I find myself asking the question "What about creators who are living right now? What about those who are shaping our perceptions, ideologies, and society right before our own eyes?" Along with that, who would be som... ...r part in shaping our present lives. His desire to bring PC's to the homes of consumers has been realized. Partly owing to the advances in computer hardware, but mostly owing to his keen economic insight and gifted ability to create computer software. How history will ultimately cast Bill Gates is still undetermined. Despite all the criticisms of him and his company, I hope that Bill Gates will be recognized a genuine historical creator and have his name placed among the ranks Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Ghandi. Resources Bill Gates Biography Page: Http:// Gates, Bill. (1996). The Road Ahead (2nd e.). New York: Penguin Books. Rensin, David. (1994). The Bill Gates Interview. Playboy Magazine. (accessed through Britannica Online). Sulloway, Frank. (1993). Creating Minds. New York: Basic Books.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

High School and Republic High Books Essay

Ms. P Andy Lau Argumentative Essay Censorship is the government is control the media, censorship can used to control or protect people. Some groups feel that books with objectionable material should be censored for many different reasons,such as sexual content,against a religion ,bad language,racism violence. I believe that books shouldn’t be censored because we have the right to read it,and it depends on your own personality. Therefore I intend to prove that the banning of books in schools is completely unjustified. In Fahrenheit 451,There is a old women in the story,she is willing to die to not leave her books. It shows that books are so important to us, and our society that she was willing to die rather than give them up,also the character Guy Montag is curious to read those books,she quitted his job for those books. In the article â€Å"You have insulted me â€Å" by kurt Vonnegut. He is angry because his books got burned by the school board. †That’s because people speak coarsely in real life†this shows people speak bad word in real life,so why can’t books have bad words. Both the article supports my opinion that book shouldn’t be banged from high school. †Two books pulled form Republic school library shelves†this article is two of the three Republic High books singled out in a public complaint last year will now removed from the school curriculum and library. Those three books are â€Å"Speak†by Laurie Halse Anderson. Kurt Vonnegut’s†Slaughterhouse Five†and Sarh Ockler’s â€Å"Twenty Boy Summer†. And they didn’t banned â€Å"Speak†because it didn’t describe sex so much,and it has a good message. Also they just banned those books in classroom,students can still read it in library and independence reading . The second article is talking about parents and school districts have debated what books are appropriate for a school library collection and what books should be banned. ACLU didn’t ban books because they say its against the First Amendment . also they said†You clearly can’t remove a book because you disagree with the ideas in them†,this shows books shouldn’t get banned . We have to see different face of books ,bad way and good way. I believe that books should not be censored because books can send us good messages and our imaginary . It also depends on your own personality,if we have a evil mind ,we could only see the evil thing in the books,if we are normal human,we suppose to able to learn something form books,so I am sure that banning of books in schools is completely unjustified.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Biology Properties of water lab Essay

Procedure The independent variables for this experiment are the types of water solutions used. The dependent variable is the boiling temperature of the water which will be measured by a thermometer. The control group is the water. The constants are the Stove top and amount of water used in each solution the starting temperature of the water and the Pot. 1. Pour 2 cups of water in the pot add 1 tablespoon of sugar then stir it up until all sugar is dissolved. 2. Turn on the stove, set the stove to it’s highest setting, place the pot on and time it with a stopwatch. Record the  time and temperature of the solution as soon as it begins to boil. Record the data on your table. 3. Rinse pot vigorously to remove impurities, and allow the stovetop to cool. 4. Pour 2 cups of water in the pot add 1 tablespoon of salt and stir. Repeat steps 2 and 3. 5. Pour 2 cups of water in the pot then add 1 tablespoon of water. Repeat step 2. Observations When boiling the water it was quite pure and clear. There was no smell to it0 when boiling the salt water it was cloudy and the bottom of the pot was coated with salt. When boiling the sugar water it was cloudy but no residue was left in the pot. Conclusion Based on the graphs water has the highest boiling point over both salt and sugar water. The sugar water took the most energy to begin to boil and the salt water took the least as the heat evaporated some of the salt, which was left coating the pan. I don’t think we changed the waters boiling point by adding a new substance but we did change how fast it would come to a boil by making it more or less dense.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Good Advice About Bad Writing

Good Advice About Bad Writing Good Advice About Bad Writing Good Advice About Bad Writing By Mark Nichol How does one avoid being a bad writer? Presumably, most people visiting or subscribing to this site needn’t concern themselves with being accused of high crimes against the English language, but allow me to make a distinction between poor writing and bad writing. Poor writing is lazy, careless writing, an attempt to communicate without adequate preparation or care. It is writing replete with passive construction, limp verbs, leaden clichà ©s, mixed metaphors, dangling participles and misplaced modifiers, and other enemies of clear prose. Without vigilance, we are all vulnerable we can easily produce any one of these errors, and perhaps more than one, in a single article or essay or short story. But poor writing is a multiplicity of such mistakes, and it is a sin of omission rather than one of commission: We might commit all these transgressions because we don’t know or recognize them. Bad writing is more of a challenge, because it is a sin of commission: You have to make an effort to write badly though it is easier to achieve than you might think, because many very accomplished, intelligent people do so. How does one manage to join such exalted company? Bad writing is that which demonstrates a surfeit of intention. (Translation: Bad writing happens when you try too hard.) Forty years ago, S. Leonard Rubenstein, now a professor emeritus at Pennsylvania State University, wrote â€Å"If a man intends to impress someone, his work will not be clear, because he does not intend clarity: he intends to impress.† And that is when writing often goes bad: Writers let their desire to demonstrate erudition, artistry, or cleverness acceptable in small doses overwhelm their effort to communicate. We see it in academic and technical writing, laden with polysyllabic prose and complicated and extensive sentence construction that obfuscates rather than opens our eyes. We see it in lay nonfiction, when arguments fight themselves, explanations leave us more confused than before, and overwrought overwriting leaves us overwhelmed. We see it in fiction, when novelists and short story writers belabor their narrative with contrived constructions and purple prose. Here are some tips on avoiding the pitfalls of bad writing: 1. Be Fresh The purpose of metaphor and simile is to evoke recognition by comparison or allusion. Write these analogies to aid your readers with your clarity of vision, not to serve your ego, and avoid clichà ©s. 2. Be Clear When drafting expository fiction or nonfiction, record your voice as you spontaneously describe a scene or explain a procedure, transcribe your comments, and base your writing on the transcription, revising only to select more vivid verbs and more precise nouns and to seek moderation in adverbs and adjectives. 3. Be Active Use the passive voice judiciously. 4. Be Concise Write tight. 5. Be Thorough Accept that writing is the easy part; it’s the revision that makes or breaks your project and requires most of your effort. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:36 Adjectives Describing LightDeck the Halls50 Plain-Language Substitutions for Wordy Phrases

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Archaeological Evidence for Domesticating Potatoes

Archaeological Evidence for Domesticating Potatoes Potato (Solanum tuberosum) belongs to the Solanaceae family, which also includes tomatoes, eggplants, and chili peppers. Potato is currently the second widest used staple crop in the world. It was first domesticated in South America, in the Andean highlands, between Peru and Bolivia, more than 10,000 years ago. Different species of potato (solanum) exist, but the most common worldwide is the S. tuberosum ssp. Tuberosum. This species was introduced in Europe in the mid-1800s from Chile when a fungus disease almost completely destroyed S. tuberosum ssp. andigena, the original species imported by the Spanish directly from the Andes in the 1500s. The edible part of the potato is its root, called tuber. Because the tuber of wild potatoes contains poisonous alkaloids, one of the first steps made by ancient Andean farmers toward domestication was to select and replant a variety with low alkaloid contents. Also, since wild tubers are quite small, farmers also selected the bigger examples. Archaeological Evidence of Potato Cultivation Archaeological evidence suggests that people were consuming potatoes in the Andes as early as 13,000 years ago. In the Tres Ventanas Cave in the Peruvian highlands, several root remains, including S. tuberosum, have been recorded and direct-dated to 5800 cal B.C. (C14 calibrated date) Also, remains of 20 potato tubers, both white and sweet potato, dating between 2000 and 1200 B.C. have been found in the trash middens of four archaeological sites in the Casma Valley, on the coast of Peru. Finally, in an Inca period site near Lima, called Pachacamac, pieces of charcoal have been found within the remains of potato tubers suggesting that one of the possible preparation of this tuber involved baking. Potatoes Around the World Although this may be due to a lack of data, current evidence indicates that the spread of potatoes from Andean highlands to the coast and the rest of the Americas was a slow process. Potatoes reached Mexico by 3000-2000 B.C., probably passing through Lower Central America or the Caribbean Islands. In Europe and North America, the South American root arrived only in the 16th and 17th century, respectively, after its importation by the first Spanish explorers. Sources Hancock, James, F., 2004, Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species. Second Edition. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA Ugent Donald, Sheila Pozoroski and Thomas Pozoroski, 1982, Archaeological Potato Tuber Remains from the Casma Valley of Peru, Economic Botany, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 182-192.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Lab report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Lab report - Essay Example To safeguard our planets future, we need to aim at the orange line level by use of existing technologies. This can also be achieved by coming up with new inventions to meet the world’s energy needs over the next 50 years, and reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide from doubling as projected in the black line. It is for this purpose that we formed a group of three students to come up with an energy wedge that is likely to tackle this problem squarely and at all angles. Our energy stabilization wedge is mainly concerned with efficient utilization of energy, and use of renewable sources as the major active ways of reducing carbon emission by the year 2055. Stabilization at any level demands that net emissions do not remain constant, but in due course drop to zero. Faced with only two solutions of either maintaining the current emission of carbon in the next 50 years or reducing the production of carbon in the atmosphere by the similar amount of time, we opted to build our wedge on the basis practical reduction of carbon in the atmosphere by half for the next 50 years. This option was opted for the various reasons of changing environmental conditions and the sudden changes in technology that demand use of carbon energy (Levy, 2010). The world is required to reduce atmospheric carbon from current 8 billion tons per year by half hence ensuring only 200 billion tons by the year 2055. This is only possible by increasing sufficient use of transport. This is mainly by adopting efficient fuel engines in terms of motor vehicles. Another way is by reducing the distance travelled while at the same time ensuring efficiency in construction and building hence reducing electricity use. This is possible by utilizing solar energy and using materials that conserve energy during winter. Use of renewable sources of energy is our next energy wedge, which aims at using sources in the

Friday, November 1, 2019

Somebody who changed others lives Research Proposal

Somebody who changed others lives - Research Proposal Example (Dyson) Galileo was one such scientist too who refused to accept the conventional wisdom of his day and propagated ideas and scientific discoveries which clearly challenged the mighty of his days. Galileo was an Italian physicist, astronomer, philosopher as well as inventor who played critical role in the scientific revolution. It is because of his contribution that Galileo is often considered as the father of the modern science. (Reston) His most noteworthy contributions are in the field of astronomy where he not only discovered the four largest satellites of Jupiter but also studied the different phases of the Venus. Above all he invented telescope which allowed physicists to see the cosmos and make important astronomical discoveries. It is also argued that this invention of Galileo was also a start of the era of the technology which has propelled the society to this current level. However, the ideas of the Galileo were considered as rebellious according to the Church and his writings were banned. His ideas on the heliocentrism that earth is not stationary and it revolves around the sun were specially considered as against the religious teachings. In Bible it is written that the world is firm and it cannot be moved therefore the discoveries of Galileo were in direct opposition with the biblical references. It was therefore because of this reason that he was also asked to stand a trial for heresy. During that trial, he was declared in violation of the religious scriptures and therefore was ordered to remain in the house arrest for the rest of his life. His life was saved when he officially retracted his claim that earth is not stationary and indirectly endorsed the claims of the church at that time. The life of the Galileo is truly a life of a rebel because he presented ideas which were vehemently denied yet his ideas decisively shaped the way

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Response Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Response - Assignment Example It integrates natural systems with human patterns and preserve continuity and uniqueness. 2.   Equity  Ã‚  which means equality between gender and income. Their target point is to minimize gender inequality and empower women as well as setting human rights.   Last year’s report was also emphasizing the importance of sustainability, equity and empowerment. However most of the countries that United Nations is helping were not accomplished to promote these indicators mutually at equal level.  The progress has been made this year to analyze how the poor and disadvantaged ones are affected and how important the equity issue as a part of solution. The main goal is to understand the close relation of sustainability and equity in order to get the most out of it for the benefit of human beings.   I think by setting the Millennium Development Goals for the year 2015. United Nation’s Development program will made a huge progress in the key indicators of well being.   F or example Electrifying Afghanistan making progress on micro-hydro-power projects that are bringing much needed electricity to rural parts of the country.  Ã‚  Or a clean water access in Vanutu are some of the examples of sustainability done by United Nations.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Provision and planning for the outdoor environment

Provision and planning for the outdoor environment Discuss with reference to curriculum documentation and relevant research literature the importance of effective provision and planning for outdoor play and exploration in UK early years settings. In this assignment I am going to look at why it is relevant for effective provision and planning for the outdoor environment in the early years in the UK. Outdoor play is a vital element of young childrens physical, social and emotional development. Play is a young childs activity for learning. Therefore making the most of outdoor play is essential, providing plenty of experiences in a varied manner for children, early years settings are in a unique position to offer these, fully integrated with the indoors. The four aspects of Birth to Three Matters Framework include examples of experiences that very young children should have both indoors and outdoors. Similarly, the curriculum guidance for the foundation stage includes many ideas for taking learning outside. All six areas of learning can be effectively promoted, from the earliest stepping stones through to the early learning goals at the end of foundation stage. The statutory framework for the Early Years Foundation stage: setting and standards for learning, development and care for children from birth to five. (DCSF 2008) states the following in relation to the outdoor environment; Wherever possible, there should be access to an outdoor play area and this is the expected norm for providers. The indoor and outdoor environments (should be linked) so that children can move freely between them. A rich and varied environment supports childrens learning and development. It gives them the confidence to explore and learn in secure and safe yet challenging, indoor and outdoor spaces. Children must have opportunities play indoors and outdoors. All early year providers must have access to an outdoor play area which can benefit the children. If the setting does not have direct access to an outdoor play area they must make arrangements for daily opportunities for outdoor play in an appropriate nearby location. Being outdoors has a positive impact on childrens sense of well-being and helps all aspects of childrens development. (See EYFS Statutory Framework (p.35 and 37); EYFS Practice Guidance (p.7) and Principles into Practice card 3.3: Enabling Environments- the Learning Environment). The EYFS statutory framework for the EYFS is put in place so that every child in a setting environment has the best possible experience of the outdoors, as so much learning and development goes on within the outdoors and to cover the six early learning goals. The outdoors offers a unique environment, which is very different from the indoors. It offers space and freedom to try things out, to explore and experiment without the constraints associated with an indoor environment (Tovey 2007). Some opportunities for learning can only happen outside. The experience of a change in the weather, finding insects, making a large scale construction/painting all of these motivate children into mental and physical engagement, and can only be done outside. In fact all learning goals can be achieved outside while the childrens health and well-being are also being boosted. Outside children can run fast, shout and squeal and find out what their bodies and voices can really do (Ouvry, 2008). The space is more open, less confided and the greater space; the more unrestricted the movement possibilities. Indoors is a space where adults are in control, but outdoors as fewer restrictions, where children can escape the controlling eyes of adults (Stephenson 2002). The four main thinkers of early childhood towards the curriculum, advocating outdoor provision as essential for childrens learning and development are; Friedrich Froebel , Margaret McMillan ,Susan Issacs and Maria Montessori. These four all held the view that the young child is first and foremost a whole person, with thoughts, feelings and imagination that need to be cared for and cherished (Curtis 1986. P.5).They all believed in a child centred approach and free-flow play. Young children are motivated and wish to learn, they dont have to be sat at a table quietly (Curtis 1986). Friedrich Froebel argued that play was a serious and significant activity for the young child. David Cohen (1987) suggests that Froebel was the first educator to use childrens play for practical purposes. In order to help children learn through play Froebel devised series of playthings and games (Bruce 1991). As Curtis (1986 p.6) points out, he used the timeless playthings of childhood in his curriculum. Balls, boards, sand, clay, for example, have made up childrens play throughout the ages. The role of the adult is crucial in Froebels approach to play. Cohen however doesnt agree that children should learn particular things, as that would be to advocate play as preparation for life. Froebel valued play because it helped children to make meaning, and as Janet Moyles (1989 p.168) points out the importance of adults and children being equal partners in play, as in conversation (Bruce 1991). Janet Moyles (1989, p.24) points out that Froebel pioneered the theory of firsthand experience as the basis of play, but this was entirely different to that, Seguin (1812-1880), who developed learning though the senses for disabled children. This curriculum was aimed towards a particular direction. However, Froebels approach to play was targeted at all childrens needs, rather than Seguin, who concentrated on disadvantaged children (Bruce 1991). As Yvonne Conolly (1983) points out (OMEP), A good Curriculum is a good curriculum for all (in Bruce, 1987, Ch.9). Margaret McMillan, pioneer of nursery education campaigned for an education centred on the garden. She was the first person to model a nursery with children flowing freely between the inside and outside environment she quoted; The best classroom and the richest cupboard is roofed by the sky. She put so much emphasis on the outdoor environment that it has been recognised by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority in its good practice guidelines for the early learning goals, which repeatedly stress those young children, should have access to a well-planned outdoors (Ouvry 2008). McMillan expanded on the ideas of Froebel, to see children playing as the integrated activity. It was through the garden that we see her begin to develop the free-flow play side of the curriculum. It is interesting to see that for Froebel, McMillan and Issacs, it was the childs free play in the outdoors that led to their greatest contributions to the early childhood educational curriculum (Bruce 1991). Issacs valued free-flow play because it gave children freedom in their actions, thoughts and emotional expression. Issacs further stressed that play also meets the emotional needs of a child, as they express all emotional during play (Bruce 1991). Montessori, who was also a pioneer for education, she thought it was an insult to children to suggest they should play. Montessori provided children with specific sense training apparatus which she expected them to use in an exact manner within the classroom, whereas McMillan believed children gained better sensory experience by playing in the garden (Bruce, 1991). Surely if practitioners are planning and setting up the activities that a child plays outdoors it is not really the childs freedom of choice, in a way it is still like the Montessori approach. Both Sylva and Bruner argued, in the 1980s, that structure is a characteristic of materials and activities themselves. Structured activities such as construction are the most challenging and unstructured materials, such as sand and water, and open ended resources, outdoors lack any clear goal structure and, therefore, do not challenge childrens minds (Bruner 1980; Sylva et al 1980). Ouvry (2008) suggests making the most out of the outdoor area is also important, so that the children in that setting have the best opportunities possible and the changing of resources provided should be different daily. Also, it is important that the children have the opportunity to explore different resources and not stick with their favourite all the time i.e. bicycles. So Bruner and Sylvas research isnt very clear as all settings have a number of different opportunities for children to do in the outdoors environment, structured and unstructured. Children learn from them all in different ways and they are all targeting the six areas of learning. Piaget saw movement and physical development as the provision for higher levels of thinking. However Smith (p.68) argues this point and believes it is stillness we have to justify, not movement. Early Years children cant be sat down all day they need freedom to express themselves and explore their environment in order to learn new things, sitting down is going to make them more likely to disengage with what is going on. If movement is such an important aspect of a childs development, access to outdoor space must be part of a daily routine in order to nurture this mind-body growth. Children want space at all ages. But from the age of one to seven, space, that is ample space, almost as much wanted as food and air. To move, to run, to find things out by new movement, to feel ones life in every limb, that is the life of early childhood. So said Margaret McMillan (1930) Childrens entitlement to high quality outdoor play experiences is strongly supported throughout the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) Framework and early years providers have a statutory duty to facilitate daily outdoor opportunities all year round for the children in their care. (See EYFS Statutory Framework (p.35 and 37); EYFS Practice Guidance (p.7) and Principles into Practice card 3.3: Enabling Environments- the Learning Environment). When children are denied adequate space they often feel desperately frustrated and this can lead to uncooperative behaviour. Research has shown that in environments that enable children to move about, to collaborate with others and take frequent breaks during calm activities, the behaviour of children who have a tendency to lose their temper or get over excited is less disturbing (Berk, l. E and Winsler, A 1995). This therefore shows that the tendency for children to shout and squeal and run around and be very hyperactive is taken outside there that type of behaviour is accessible (Ouvry 2008). Ouvry (2008) states that boys brains mature in a different sequence to those of girls and in some areas, at a slower rate. Boys first develop the parts of the brain for knowing about movement and space in which they have to move themselves and other things. Other areas of the curriculum then arise meaningfully out of play. Girls, stereotypically like playing imaginatively in the home corner and working with and alongside adults. Girls come to an understanding of adult world through domestic play and talk; they use reading and writing in their play because their brains are more developed for language at the three to five year old stage. The whole emphasis on activities that focus on children who are good at talking, fitting in, quick at learning and understanding other peoples intentions. Boys can tend to feel uncomfortable because they tend to feel more secure in the outdoor environment, where they can be themselves and still learn from their experiences just in a different manner. By the setting giving less attention to the outdoors environment and quality of outdoor play, they may be denying access to education to a significant number of boys (Bilton, H. 1998). The outdoor space must be viewed as an essential teaching and learning environment which is linked with the learning that goes on inside, but with even greater status because it allows for children to learn through movement. If we believe that young children learn through play and that play is thought in action- then offering children a playing space outdoors would seem the most effective means to fulfil their need to play, learning through first hand experiences and cooperate with others, that also cover the six main learning goals (Ouvry. 2008). Despite the much higher profile given to outdoor play in recent years with the introduction of the Curriculum Guidance for the foundation stage (QCA 2000), there is still evidence that the purpose and value of outdoor play is not well understood'(Tovey. 2007). Many practitioners have an unconscious belief that effective learning only happens when children are still, quiet and calm, with a pencil and paper at hand and with a teacher nearby to offer instruction. The idea that when children are physically active, many people believe they cant be learning anything to do with the curriculum (Ouvry 2008). But then what about forest schools, they are based outside all of the time and are still based on the curriculum and the learning intentions are still met and this is all due to planning for the six areas of learning. It is certainly true that if the outdoors is not well planned and the setting does not have clear aims for the childrens learning outside, then practitioners may find it difficult to see any worthwhile learning going on outside. This is however true when considering any environment for young children inside or outside. Without clarity of aims and learning intentions for children in play situations, it is impossible to know what to look for when observing the children or to know how to further the childrens learning. Structuring the environment and supporting childrens learning is as important outside as in (Ouvry 2008). The key person working with a four-year-old child may have observed on several occasions that the child is rather unsteady when moving around the outside area. The practitioner then plans to build an obstacle course to give the child lots of opportunities to use a wide range of physical movements. These then support the planning for enhanced provision. In many cases, this planned adjustment and enrichment of some aspect of the settings provision will also be relevant to other children in a group. Many of the other children in the group will enjoy helping to build and develop the obstacle course and will join the focus child in actively using and enjoying the challenges it offers. The right of the child to rest and leisure and engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and arts. (UNICEF 1989). There are constraints and fears that limit childrens opportunities for play particularly outdoors, deprive children of essential childhood experiences and opportunities- opportunities to develop friendships and to make relationships, to experience all emotions, to take risks, have adventures and misadventures, to have contact with nature and the environment (Casey, T. 2007). Children need to climb, run, jump, an bash balls against walls (Lewis Howdle, lecture, RIHE,1980).

Friday, October 25, 2019

Symbolism and Realism Essay -- Symbolism Realism Literature Essays

Symbolism and Realism Symbolism and Realism were distinct but parallel literary movements that swept Europe and much of the world in the late 19th century. Social order was one of the main concerns of Symbolists and Realists, which reflects the unprecedented growth of the middle class and its values across Europe during that time period. Morality and ambition were homogenized – and, in some cases, institutionalized – to a degree never before seen in civilized society, and many intellectuals and artists saw this homogenization as a conformist social force that threatened individual perspective. Thus, Symbolists’ and Realists’ works lashed out against social institutions and values and were particularly concerned about the domestic sphere, because of its dependence on social norms and shaping effect on individual perceptions; were disturbed by the decaying effects of conformism; and were troubled by the disconnection between modern individuals. Moreover, Symbolists and Realists a rgue that these three themes of domesticity, decay, and disconnection are linked, a connection explored especially in the Symbolist Charles Baudelaire’s poem, â€Å"Spleen LXVIII† (1862), in the Realist Leo Tolstoy’s novella, The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886), and in the Realist Anton Chekhov’s play, The Cherry Orchard (1903). Specifically, these authors argue that the various forms of modern domestic life lead to the ruination of substantial interpersonal connection. As long as one drowns in life’s tedium, asserts Baudelaire, the human experience and one’s connections with others decay. â€Å"Spleen LXVIII† describes a winter rain that pours â€Å"On corpses fading in the near graveyard, On foggy suburbs pours life’s tedium† (1550.II 3, 4), and, speaking of a ... ...orms in one way or another destroy one’s connections with other human beings. Not only does such focus on forms defy the social nature of humanity, creating generations of socially approved outcasts, but also it severely restricts the individual’s perspective by forcing it to conform to preordained, rigid structures, thereby suffocating the blessing of human creativity. Such restriction does not belong to modern civilization alone, however; creativity never exists without limit, for every society upholds rules of conduct that its members are taught to obey. Therefore, contemporary conformity is not new but rather reborn and strengthened. Correspondingly, the task of the modern citizen is ancient, but difficult in its originality: to strike a balance between creativity and conformity, between pursuing our own diverse forms and following the accepted forms of society.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

How to Mark A Book Essay

Active reading is important because it keeps your mind dynamic and promotes a better understanding of what you are reading. You are able to answer questions you have that come up throughout the story-line and solve problems or confusions about the plot or characters. As you read along, you can make notes either agreeing or disagreeing with the current events taking place in the book. You are allowing yourself to input ideas of your own. Making notes in your book as you read through is, in a sense, engaging in a dialogue between the author and yourself. The reason active reading is so important is that it helps to keep your mind dynamic and willing to explore, and promote fresh ideas. Mortimer Adler states that â€Å"writing helps you remember the thoughts you had, or the thoughts the author expressed† (p9.) The meaning of active reading is that one is reading something with a clear intent to evaluate and understand the material. â€Å"The physical act of writing, with your ow n hand, brings words and sentences more sharply before your mind and preserves them better in your memory† (p12.) This isn’t just reading the material over and over, but rather critically and actively engaging with the content of the material. â€Å"To set down your reaction to important words and sentences you have read, and the questions they have raised in your mind, is to preserve those reactions and sharpen those questions† (p12.) When reading a great book, marking in notes is also almost essential every time a new character is introduced. Anytime something important about that character is revealed, like background story, physical appearance, motivations, etc., you can underline it. Later on in the book sometimes characters will re-appear out of nowhere and you can put a note there on which page they were described. This helps a lot for books in which there are a lot of characters, or the characters have exotic names. Milton Adler brings up a good point that is relative when reading a book with a complex story-line and a dynamic plot. â€Å"You can pick up the book the following week or year, and there are all your points of agreement, disagreement, doubt, and inquiry. It’s like resuming an interrupted conversation with the advantage of being able to pick up where you left off† (p13.) Unfortunately for myself, I tend to lack the drive to read paperback books, let alone actively engage in the story by writing my own thoughts in. But I do read an extensive amount online, ranging anywhere from short anecdotes, all the way to peer reviewed papers from scientists and university professors. Fortunately for me, I do enjoy reading. The benefits of reading to me are invaluable. It stimulates my brain and makes me more of a creative thinker. It also expands and improves my vocabulary. Reading online has introduced me to new ideas and ways of thinking; It has increased my knowledge of things I once only half-understood. It has shed light on countries I believed I knew so much about, like Russia and North Korea, Afghanistan and India. It has introduced me to people I might otherwise never have heard of. I actively seek out sources which offer ideas and insights, which increase my understanding of the world, and so I think that without the information I obtained through reading I would be clueless. In conclusion, Mortimer Adler has made some credible points that are useful, if put into practice. By actively reading the text and jotting down questions you hope to learn answers to, you make it easier and more pleasant to read through the text the first time, and you engage yourself actively with the text, generating a personal interest through the questions you’ve written down in the information being presented in the text. This makes the reading more interesting and more rewarding. When you go back and annotate the text thoroughly while reading it through, you blaze y ourself a trail through the text that makes it much easier to navigate later on. If someone questions your interpretation of something you read, you can quickly and easily find the passage from your margin comments and highlighting colors. If you need to cite a passage from the text in an essay, it will also be very easy to find. Every time you need to review in order to prepare for class discussion, a quiz, or an essay, you can do it in a small fraction of the time and gain a deeper, more conscious understanding of information being inputted.